Reluctant Pioneers: China's Expansion Northward, 1644-1937

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Stanford University Press, 2005 - History - 288 pages
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Reluctant Pioneers describes the migration of Chinese to Manchuria, their settlement there, and the incorporation of Manchuria into an expanding China, from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries. The expansion of Chinese state and society from the agrarian and urban core of China proper to the territories north and west of the Great Wall doubled the size of the empire, forming the "China" now so prominent on the map of Asia. The movement and settlement of people, clearing and cultivation of land, invasions of soldiers, circulation of merchants, and establishment of government offices extended the boundaries of China at the same time that the American expansion westward and the Russian expansion eastward created the other great landed empires that dominated the twentieth century and persist today.

The chief purpose of this book is to describe the Chinese experience and what it tells us about the expansion of states and societies, drawing comparisons with Russia and America, and reflecting on the nature of what scholars since Frederick Jackson Turner have called "frontiers" and what Turner's critics now call "borderlands" or "middle ground." In addition, the book touches on several other issues central to our understanding of modern China, such as the development of the Chinese economy and the nature of Chinese migration.

  

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Contents

Introduction to Part One
15
The Manorial Experiment 16441740
18
From Manor to Market 17401850
46
The Advance of the Qing 18501911
71
Analysis
85
Introduction to Part Two
97
Sojourners
102
Networks
127
Introduction to Part Three
169
Commerce and Trade 16441903
171
A Tale of Two Cities Newchwang and Dairen 190322
204
Agriculture Innovation and Development?
218
Analysis
243
Conclusion
253
Glossary of Chinese Terms
263
Works Cited
269

Refugees
147
Analysis
160

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Page 4 - American development has exhibited not merely advance along a single line, but a return to primitive conditions on a continually advancing frontier line, and a new development in that area. American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier.
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About the author (2005)

James Reardon-Anderson is Sun Yat-sen Professor of Chinese Studies and Chair of the Faculty in the School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University. His publications include Pollution, Politics, and Foreign Investment in Taiwan: The Lukang Rebellion (1992) and The Study of Change: Chemistry in China, 1840-1949 (1991).

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