Studia archaeologica, Issue 156
This is a study of the water-raising wheels of western Syria from the aspects of sources, terminology, typology, origin, history, technology and architecture, and gives a survey of these installations, discussing their present state of conservation. By making use of historical, architectural and iconographical material, the study shows that Syrian water-wheels constitutes a particular type of water-architecture, which successfully combines the functional with the aesthetic and displays sophisticated forms of construction. These devices are visually impressive, present a variety of shapes and are of great historical, environmental and iconographical importance, being of extraordinarily accurate and detailed design. An attempt is made to present evidence of their ancient origin, and to gain an understanding of how their design evolved over time, the reasons for their significance and uniqueness, and for their great concentration in Syria.
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RELEVANT AVAILABLE LITERATURE
FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF WATERWHEELS
SYRIAN WATERWHEELS IN HISTORICAL SOURCES
TYPES OF INSTALLATION
PROGRESS CHANGE AND SUSTAINABILITY
MANAGEMENT OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
HYDRAULIC NORIA IN EAST SYRIA
12lh century 24 spokes 3rd century 3rd century A.D. al-Bishriyyat al-Jazari al-Muhammadiyya Aleppo Apamea aqueduct channel aqueduct Fig Arab arches architectural Banu Musa basalt Biblioteca bucket-chain buckets built chain with pots Chapter cogged-wheel connected construction Damascus diameter Euphrates existence external rims folio Hagia Sophia Hama towards Asharina Homs horizontal axle horizontal wheel hydraulic norias Ibn Battuta installation irrigation Khabur rivers limestone and mortar machine manuscript masonry metres mill mosque noria with pots original Orontes river Orontes wheels paddles Philo of Byzantium preserved pumps radial raise water Rastan Rastan towards Hama rebuilt in reinforced reconstruction reinforced concrete findings remains Roman saqiya and noria saqiya at Damascus Schioler secondary beams shape Spain structure Syria Syrian hydraulic norias Syrian water-wheels tions in reinforced treadwheel treatise type A aqueduct type A technique type Al tower typology underground vertical wheel Vitruvius water-wheels wheel Fig wheel with pots