The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West

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Cambridge University Press, Aug 18, 2003 - History - 425 pages
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Toby Huff examines the long-standing question of why modern science arose only in the West and not in the civilizations of Islam and China, despite the fact that medieval Islam and China were more scientifically advanced. Huff explores the cultural contexts within which science was practiced in Islam, China, and the West. He finds major clues in the history of law and the European cultural revolution of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, as to why the ethos of science arose in the West and permitted the breakthrough to modern science that did not occur elsewhere. First Edition Hb (1993): 0-521-43496-3 First Edition Pb (1995): 0-521-49833-3
  

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Contents

The comparative study of science The modernity of science
8
Science as a civilizational institution
11
Elements of the sociological perspective
14
The role of the scientist
16
The ethos of science
22
Paradigms and scientific communities
25
Joseph Needham
32
universalization and wider spheres of discourse
39
The arresting of Arabic science
211
Internal factors
215
cultural and institutional impediments
220
The failure to develop autonomous corporate bodies
224
The persistence of particularism in institutions of higher learning
227
Elitism versus communalism
229
Disinterestedness and organized skepticism
232
Conclusion
239

the issues at hand
44
Arabic science and the Islamic world
47
The achievements of Arabic astronomy
55
Rolesets institutions and science
64
Social roles and cultural elites
68
Institutions of higher learning and research
73
Institution building and the marginality problem
84
Reason and rationality in Islam and the West
89
The Islamic legal background
91
Reason man and nature in Europe
97
Reason and conscience
105
Conclusion
115
The European legal revolution
118
The development of modern Western law
120
The papal revolution
123
The breakthrough in inherited logics
127
Corporations and jurisdiction
133
Revolution and the parting of the ways
139
Madrasas universities and science
147
Islamic colleges
149
Islamic protoscientific institutions
159
Islamic hospitals
160
The observatory
171
Western universities and the place of science
179
The European reception of new medical knowledge
189
Dissection and the European universities
193
Anatomy and dissection in China
205
Cultural climates and the ethos of science
209
Science and civilization in China
240
China and the comparative context
251
The emergence of imperial China
253
Chinese law
263
Education and the examination system
277
Reprise
287
Science and social organization in China
289
Some problems of written Chinese
292
Chinese modes of thought
298
Institutional impediments and patterns of opportunity
305
Conclusion
316
The rise of early modern science
325
The Copernican revolution
326
The institutionalization problem
331
Science learning and the medieval revolution
339
The revolution in authority and astronomy
345
educational reform and attitudes toward science in the Muslim world and China since the eighteenth century
362
The Ottoman lands
364
Egypt
366
The Indian subcontinent
368
Attitudes toward science in the twentieth century
370
The Cairo spectrum
371
the Internet
373
Modern science in China
377
Selected bibliography
385
Index
407
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About the author (2003)

Toby E. Huff is professor of sociology at the University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth. He is editor of "On the Roads to Modernity: Conscience, Science and Civilization--Selected Writings" by Benjamin Nelson and the author of "Max Weber and the Methodology of the Social Sciences and The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West.

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