Parts: A Study in Ontology
Although the relationship of part to whole is one of the most fundamental there is, this is the first full-length study of this key concept. Showing that mereology, or the formal theory of part and whole, is essential to ontology, Simons surveys and critiques previous theories--especially the standard extensional view--and proposes a new account that encompasses both temporal and modal considerations. Simons's revised theory not only allows him to offer fresh solutions to long-standing problems, but also has far-reaching consequences for our understanding of a host of classical philosophical concepts.
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Extensional PartWhole Theory
Survey of Extensional Mereology
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3zrz accept applies argument assumption atomistic atomless atoms axiomatic axioms binary Bolzano calculus of individuals Chapter Chisholm classical extensional mereology complex concept connected consider constitutes continuants defined definition deny discussion disjoint distinct Doepke equivalent example expression formal formula four-dimensional free logic function functor genidentity Goodman Husserl identity independent integrity interpretation involved kind least upper bound Leibniz Lejewski Lesniewski mass nouns mass of matter matter-constant means mereological essentialism mereological sums mereologically constant modal modal logic natural notion nouns objects occurrents ontological dependence Ontology organisms overlapping part-relation part-whole theory particular philosophical plural possible predicate logic primitive problem proper properties quantifiers reason relation sense sentence set theory Sharvy ship Ship of Theseus singular terms sortal spatial substance superposed superposition Tail temporal theorems things Tibbles topological universal quantifier variables Whitehead whole wiggins