The utilization of wood waste by distillation: a general consideration of the industry of wood distilling, including a description of the apparatus used and the principles involved, also methods of chemical control and disposal of the products (Google eBook)

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Journal of Commerce Co., 1907 - Technology & Engineering - 156 pages
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Page 155 - ... glycerol. 3 measures of absolute glycerol mixed with 1 volume of water in an appropriate strength. For the detection of coal-tar acids in wood creosote, 1 volume of the sample should be thoroughly agitated in a Mohr's burette with 3 volumes of the diluted glycerol, and the liquid allowed to stand till separation has occurred. If the creosote be pure, the volume will remain unchanged. If reduced, the glycerol layer is tapped off, and the remaining creosote again shaken with 3 times its volume...
Page 39 - Whilst from 400 to 600 units of heat are transm itted from water to water through iron plates, per degree of difference per square foot per hour, the quantity of heat transmitted between water and air, or other dry gas, is only about from 2 to 5 units, according as the surrounding air is at rest or in movement. In a locomotive boiler, where radiant heat was brought into play, 17 units of heat were transmitted through the plates of the fire-box per degree of difference of temperature per square foot...
Page 150 - Into a 30 cc tube, graduated to tenths, put 6 cc of the spirits of turpentine to be examined. Hold the tube under the spigot and then slowly fill it nearly to the top of the graduation with concentrated oil of vitriol. Allow the whole mass to become cool and then cork the tube and mix by shaking the tube well, cooling with water during the operation if necessary. Set the tube vertical and allow it to stand at the ordinary temperature of the room not less than half an hour. The amount of clear layer...
Page 140 - ... rapidly-revolving centrifugal machine, where the oxidizing liquors are thrown out, and the camphor, being heavier, remains behind, comparatively pure, but stained from the oxidizing compound, so that it resembles light-brown sugar. After removal from the separator it is placed in a large steam-jacketed sublimer. In this vessel a slow heat frees it from any water it may contain, and the temperature is then raised to the boiling point of camphor, and a rapid current of air projected over the surface...
Page 140 - After the completion of this step in the process, the mass, which is liquid, is pumped into a set of stills for treatment. Here it is distilled with live steam in the presence of an alkali, the resultant formation occurring as ordinary camphor and borneol camphor dissolved in the oily products of the reaction. These oils are fractionally distilled to extract the camphor and borneol further. After the pleasant-smelling oils have passed over, the camphor and borneol distill in the steam and are precipitated...
Page 140 - The quantity of charcoal obtained in this mode of carbonization is from 25 to 30 per cent. of the weight of the dry turf.
Page 88 - I find that the results are often considerably modified by the bodies being exposed for a longer or shorter time to the action of the acids, &c.
Page 132 - The pans are usually provided with a set of stirrers to prevent the acetate from burning to the bottom. The tarry matter rising to the surface is removed through a sliding door. When the specific gravity (measured hot) reaches 1.116 the separation of acetate begins and gradually the mass forms a thick paste which is removed and spread on flat iron pans to be dried. Some finish the drying in rooms heated by the waste furnace or retort gases. The residue in the stills is " boiled tar," and is removed...
Page 156 - ... consumed as so many cc of iodine solution of the same normal strength, the calculation is reduced to the basis of iodine. Expressing it as a proportion, and letting...

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