Intermediate Filaments (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Harald Herrmann, J. Robin Harris
Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 30, 1998 - Medical - 622 pages
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This text looks at subcellular chemistry, particularly at intermediate filaments. Topics include fish intermediate filament proteins in structure, evolution, and function, and lessons from keratin transgenic and knockout mice.
  

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Contents

Fish Intermediate Filament Proteins in Structure Evolution and Function
1
11 Higher Vertebrate IF Proteins Are Expressed in TissueSpecific Programs
2
13 Fish IF ProteinsBewildering Chaos or Scientific Goldmine?
3
STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION
5
Goldfish Optic Nerve Carp and Zebrafish Tissues
7
Shark Tissues Ray Electrocytes
12
Lamprey Tissues Hagfish Gland Thread Cells
13
25 Keratinlike Epitopes in Fish Mitochondria?
14
4 SUPRAMOLECULAR ORGANIZATIONFUTURE PROSPECTS
347
5 CONCLUSIONS
354
6 REFERENCES
355
Measuring the Assembly Kinetics and Binding Properties of Intermediate Filament Proteins
363
2 ASSEMBLY KINETICS OF INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT PROTEINS
364
22 Vimentin Assembly Kinetics
365
23 Cytokeratin Assembly Kinetics
369
24 Applications
370

Product of Neutral Evolution or Functional Demands?
15
27 Neurofilament Proteins Originated Twice in Evolution
16
3 FISH NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS IN DEVELOPMENT AND REGENERATION
17
32 Neurofilament Proteins in Goldfish Optic Nerve
18
33 Molecular Cloning of Goldfish Neurofilament Proteins
19
34 Plasticin and Gefiltin Expression in Normal and Regenerating Goldfish Optic Nerve
20
35 Plasticin and Gefiltin Expression in Zebrafish
21
36 Relationships between Plasticin and Gefiltin and the Developmentally Related Mammalian Neurofilaments
22
4 CONCLUSIONS
26
5 REFERENCES
27
Intermediate Filament Organization during Oogenesis and Early Development in the Clawed FrogXenopus laevis
35
2 IF PROTEINS EXPRESSED IN THE XENOPUS OOCYTE
37
22 Do Xenopus Oocytes Contain IPs Composed of Vimentin?
39
3 KERATIN FILAMENT ORGANIZATION IN THE OOCYTE
42
32 Assembly of the Keratin Filament Network during Early Oogenesis
46
33 Keratin Filaments Are Disassembled during Oocyte Maturation
51
34 Cytoplasmic Keratin Filaments Are Reassembled after Fertilization
58
5 KERATIN FUNCTIONS WITHIN THE EMBRYO
62
6 SUMMARY AND PERSPECTIVES
64
The Complexity of Gene Families Involved in Epithelial Differentiation Keratin Genes and the Epidermal Differentiation Complex
71
2 KERATIN GENES
73
22 Gene Structure
75
23 Chromosomal Localization of Intermediate Filament Genes
77
24 Pseudogenes
81
25 Polymorphism and Mutation
82
3 THE EPIDERMAL DIFFERENTIATION COMPLEX
90
4 CONCLUDING REMARKS
95
Keratin Modifications and Solubility Properties in Epithelial Cells and in Vitro
105
2 KERATIN PHOSPHORYLATION
108
22 Characterization of Keratin Phosphorylation
109
23 Dynamics of Keratin Phosphorylation
111
3 KERATIN GLYCOSYLATION
117
32 Characterization of Keratin Glycosylation
118
33 Features of OGlcNAcylated Proteins Including Keratins
119
34 Potential Functions to Consider for Keratin Glycosylation
121
42 Proteolysis of Keratins
122
43 Keratin Transglutamination
124
52 Mechanisms of Generating the Soluble Keratin Fraction
127
53 Simple Epithelial Cells Have Parallel Keratin Solubility and Phosphorylation Gradients
129
6 CONCLUDING REMARKS
130
7 SUMMARY
131
8 REFERENCES
132
Lessons from Keratin Transgenic and Knockout Mice
141
11 Regulation of Keratin Expression in Transgenic Mice
142
2 FUNCTIONAL STUDIES
149
22 Ectopic and Overexpression of Keratins
154
3 KERATIN KNOCKOUT MICE
158
32 Knockout Mice for Simple Epithelial Keratins
162
4 CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES
164
5 REFERENCES
165
The Wound RepairAssociated Keratins 616 and 17 Insights into the Role of Intermediate Filaments in Specifying Keratinocyte Cytoarchitecture
173
2 KERATIN EXPRESSION IS ALTERED DURING THE REEPITHELIALIZATION OF SKIN WOUNDS
176
3 ANALYSIS OF K6 K16 AND K17 SEQUENCES AND THEIR EXPRESSION IN NORMAL WOUNDED AND DISEASED EPITHELIA
178
32 Distribution within Normal Epithelia
182
33 Involvement in Disease
184
34 Inheritable Disorders Involving Mutations in K6 K16 or K17
185
4 THE REGULATION OF K6 K16 AND K17 GENE EXPRESSION
188
42 In Vivo Promoter Analysis of K6 Transcription
191
5 PROPERTIES AND FUNCTION OF K6 AND K16 IN NORMAL AND HEALING EPITHELIA
193
52 Mapping Biochemical Determinants in K16 Protein
195
6 CONCLUSION
197
7 REFERENCES
198
Cytokeratins as Markers of Differentiation in the Diagnosis of Epithelial Tumors
205
2 BASIC CYTOKERATIN EXPRESSION PATTERNS IN NORMAL HUMAN EPITHELIA
207
3 CYTOKERATIN PATTERNS IN MAJOR HUMAN CARCINOMA TYPES
209
31 Colorectal Adenocarcinomas
210
32 Gastric Adenocarcinomas
214
33 Adenocarcinomas of the Pancreas
217
34 Breast Carcinomas
219
35 TransitionalCell Carcinomas of the Urinary Tract
225
36 SquamousCell Carcinomas of the Oropharynx and of Other Sites
228
4 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CYTOKERATIN DIVERSITY IN CARCINOMAS
239
5 CYTOKERATINS AS DIAGNOSTIC MARKERS IN TUMOR PATHOLOGY
242
6 CONCLUSIONS AND PERSPECTIVES
247
7 REFERENCES
249
Molecular Dissection of Desmosomal Assembly and Intermediate Filament Anchorage
263
2 TOOLS TO EXAMINE DESMOSOME ASSEMBLY IN CULTURED CELLS
264
3 STRUCTURE OF THE EXTRACELLULAR DESMOSOMAL REGION
267
32 Heterodimer Formation by Extracellular Desmocollin and Desmoglein Regions
271
4 STRUCTURE OF THE DESMOSOMAL PLAQUE
273
42 Desmoplakin as a Potential Linker between Desmosomal Plaque and Intermediate Filaments
275
43 Multiple CadherinBinding Sites of Plakoglobin
276
44 Involvement of Plakoglobin in Cadherin Clustering and in Intermediate Filament Anchorage to Desmosomes
279
5 INTERPLAY AMONG DISTINCT DESMOSOMAL ASSEMBLY PROCESSES
281
6 REFERENCES
282
Lens Intermediate Filament Proteins
291
2 INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT PROTEINS OF THE LENS
292
3 SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF LENSSPECIFIC INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT PROTEINS
293
32 CP49
295
4 GENE STRUCTURE OF LENS INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT PROTEINS
299
5 IN VITRO ASSEMBLY OF LENS INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT PROTEINS
303
6 IN VIVO ASSEMBLY OF LENS INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT PROTEINS
304
7 ASSEMBLY OF FILENSIN AND CP49 INTO BEADED FILAMENTS
305
8 BEADED FILAMENTS AND VIMENTIN INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT NETWORKS IN THE LENS
307
9 FACTORS INFLUENCING VIMENTIN AND FILENSINCP49 FILAMENT NETWORKS WITHIN THE LENS
309
92 aCrystallins as Modulators of Intermediate Filament Networks
310
93 Phosphorylation
311
10 FUNCTIONS OF LENTICULAR INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT PROTEINS
312
102 Mouse Mutants
313
12 REFERENCES
314
Structure Assembly and Dynamics of Intermediate Filaments
319
2 DOMAIN ORGANIZATION
322
22 The Nonhelical AmmoTerminal Head Domain
325
23 The aHelical Rod Domain
330
24 The Nonhelical Tail Domain
336
3 FILAMENT ASSEMBLY
340
32 Mechanics of IF Assembly
342
3 BINDING PROPERTIES OF INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT PROTEINS
374
32 Estimation of Relative Affinities of Intermediate Filament Proteins
375
4 FUTURE PROSPECTS
376
5 REFERENCES
377
Viscoelasticity of Intermediate Filament Networks
381
12 Modeling the Cytoskeleton
382
2 VISCOELASTICITY
383
22 Measurement Techniques
384
GENERAL PROPERTIES AND COMPARISON WITH OTHER BIOPOLYMERS
385
4 ASSEMBLY KINETICS
388
INSIGHTS FROM MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS
389
6 INTEGRATED MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
390
62 VimentinMicrotubule Composite Networks
391
7 STRUCTURAL ORIGINS OF IF VISCOELASTICITY
393
9 REFERENCES
394
Transient Electric Birefringence in the Study of Intermediate Filament Assembly
399
2 TRANSIENT ELECTRIC BIREFRINGENCETHE TECHNIQUE
400
22 Theoretical Background
401
23 Experimental Background
405
Myosin
409
4 THE USE OF TRANSIENT ELECTRIC BIREFRINGENCE FOR THE STUDY OF INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT ASSEMBLY
411
42 Type III Intermediate Filament Proteins in LowIonic Strength Solution
413
43 The Formation of Higher Order Structures of Type III Intermediate Filament Proteins
414
5 CONCLUSIONS AND PROSPECTS
418
6 REFERENCES
419
Possible Regulation of Intermediate Filament Proteins by RhoBinding Kinases
423
2 IDENTIFICATION OF INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT KINASES
425
3 RHOBINDING PROTEIN KINASES AS POSSIBLE INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT KINASES
426
31 Protein Kinase N
427
32 RhoKinase
429
4 FUTURE PROSPECTS
430
5 REFERENCES
432
Vimentin and Lipid Metabolism
437
2 IN VITRO VIMENTINLIPID INTERACTIONS
438
3 VIMENTIN ASSOCIATIONS WITH LIPIDRICH STRUCTURES IN CELLS
439
32 Steroidogenic Cells
440
4 PERTURBATION OF VIMENTIN ORGANIZATION IN PREADIPOSE CELLS AND TRIGLYCERIDE STABILITY
441
5 VIMENTIN EXPRESSION IN IFFREE ADRENAL CELLS AND THE METABOLISM OF SPECIFIC CELLULAR LIPIDS
444
52 Lipoprotein Cholesterol
447
53 Intermediate Filaments and Lysosomal Cholesterol Transport
448
54 Glycosphingolipids
451
55 Lipid Droplets
452
6 VIMENTIN EXPRESSION IN IFFREE FIBROBLASTS
454
7 THE DILEMMA OF THE VIMENTIN KNOCKOUT MOUSE
455
8 SUMMARY
457
9 REFERENCES
458
Desmin Cytoskeleton in Muscle Integrity and Function
463
2 DESMIN IN DEVELOPING MUSCLE
464
3 THE DESMIN IF SCAFFOLD OF STRIATED MUSCLE
465
4 THE IF CYTOSKELETON OF SMOOTH MUSCLE
468
6 DESMIN IS CRUCIAL FOR MYOGENESIS IN VITRO
469
7 PRENATAL MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE ABSENCE OF DESMIN
473
8 MYOFIBRILLOGENESIS CAN TAKE PLACE IN THE ABSENCE OF DESMIN
475
9 MAINTENANCE OF INTEGRATION OF MUSCLE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION REQUIRES THE PRESENCE OF DESMIN ITS ABSENCE L...
476
10 IS DESMIN CRUCIAL IN MUSCLE INTEGRITY AND STRENGTHENING OR TISSUE REPAIR AND REGENERATION?
481
11 DESMIN IN MITOCHONDRIAL INTEGRITY AND FUNCTION
483
12 DESMIN IN FORCE TRANSMISSION
485
13 DESMIN AND MUSCLE DISEASE
486
14 CONCLUSIONS
487
The Complexity of Intermediate Filaments in the Nervous System
497
2 ASSEMBLY OF NEURONAL INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS
499
3 DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
501
4 REGULATION OF GENE EXPRESSION
505
5 PHOSPHORYLATION OF INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
507
6 FUNCTIONS OF INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
509
7 NEURONAL INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS AND DISEASE
510
8 CONCLUSION
515
Extensive Phosphorylation and Axonal Transport of TritonSoluble Neurofilament Subunits
527
12 Axonal Transport of TritonSoluble Neurofilament NF Subunits
528
2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
529
22 Cell Culture
530
24 Fractionation of NB2ad1 Cells and Optic Pathway
531
25 Immunoprecipitation
532
27 Quantitation of NF Subunit Immunoreactivity
533
28 Biotinylation and Microinjection of NF Subunits
534
3 RESULTS
535
32 Axonal Transport of TritonSoluble NF Subunits
540
4 DISCUSSION
552
42 Axonal Transport of TritonSoluble NF Subunits
554
43 Concluding Remarks
556
6 REFERENCES
557
Lamin Assembly in Vivo
563
DISCOVERY MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND ISOTYPES
566
23 Lamin Isotypes
567
3 LAMIN TARGETING ASSEMBLY STEPS AND DISASSEMBLY
568
32 Steps in the Formation of Lamin Polymers
571
33 M if of if Disassembly of Lamins
572
4 THE STRUCTURE OF IN VIVOFORMED LAMIN POLYMERS
573
INFLUENCE ON NUCLEAR ENVELOPE STRUCTURE AND STABILITY
579
52 A Mutation of the Drosophila Lamin Dmo Gene
581
6 REFERENCES
582
Nuclear LaminBinding Proteins
587
2 NUCLEAR LAMINA
589
22 Human Nuclear Lamins
590
3 LAMIN B RECEPTOR
591
32 Protein and Gene Structure
593
33 Targeting to the Inner Nuclear Membrane
594
34 Association with Chromatin
595
4 LAMINAASSOCIATED PROTEINS
596
42 Protein Structure
597
5 OTHER LAMINBINDING PROTEINS
598
52 Cytoplasmic Intermediate Filament Binding to Lamins
599
54 Proteins Colocalizing with Lamins
600
6 LAMINBINDING PROTEINS IN MITOSIS
602
7 REFERENCES
603
Index
611
Copyright

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About the author (1998)

Harris is a lecturer in Modern European History at the University of Teesside in the United Kingdom.

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