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analysis Autonomous income average benefits capita GDP capita income capita labor income CASEN surveys CEPAL changes Chilean CM CM decile decline decomposition economic equivalent adult estimates evaluations figures Gini coefficient Greater Santiago growth Headcount Index high education household head household income impact improvement income distribution income inequality income per equivalent increase Indicators and Living inequality measures labor earnings labor market low education lower mean income MIDEPLAN minimum wage Money income non-labor income nonpoor OECD overall pension percent period Poor Households Poverty Indicators poverty line poverty measures poverty reduction proportion quintile random effect estimators ratio reduction in poverty retraining return to education revenue Santiago schooling Shower or Tube significant social expenditure social programs social security stochastic dominance subgroups Table targeted Theil index Total habitable rooms transfers trend unemployed unemployment rates Universidad de Chile variables vulnerable groups welfare World Bank