The Geological Evidences of Evolution (Google eBook)

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author, 1888 - Evolution - 99 pages
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Page 2 - It is not my purpose to-night to discuss the status of evolution, which has long since passed from the realm of pure and simple theory, but to present to you such of the more salient facts bearing upon its proof, drawn from my own department of geology and palaeontology, as will permit you to understand why the greater number of naturalists consider the doctrine as firmly established to-day as is the Copernican theory of planetary revolution, the theory of gravitation, or the undulatory theory of...
Page 40 - ... most extraordinary discoveries made in zoology during the last decade, and so remarkable is it, that when a similar announcement was made some sixty years ago, and by one of the most eminent of naturalists living at the time, it met with absolute unbelief. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MAMMALS AND REPTILES The evidence bearing upon the inter-relationship of mammals and reptiles is rapidly accumulating, and it will probably not be long ere we will be able to point to the connecting form between the two....
Page 8 - Mammalia with numerous extinct families and orders; all the species and most of the genera extinct. Modern type Shell-Fish. Passage Beds.
Page 82 - ... way, serve to distinguish the several zoogeographical regions. And this is precisely what we find. You have already learned that in the earlier Tertiary periods of mammalian history the existing animal forms were almost wholly different from the forms of to-day, and that they became less and less different as we approached the modern era. But with this distinctness there appears to have been more of a general correspondence between the faunas of the different parts of the earth's surface, so...
Page 75 - ... directed about equally downward and forward, and the nasal bones are measurably contracted in size. The horns likewise furnish characters which further serve to establish this dual relationship. DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLECT There is still one phase of development which remains to be considered the development of intellect or brain force. Although seemingly an intangible subject, geology affords evidence in regard to it fully as important as that which attaches to the development of bone or muscle....
Page 86 - ... Delaware, if actually belonging there, would seem to indicate an antiquity dating from the glacial epoch, and probably nothing beyond this can be definitely located. The famous Calaveras skull, from the auriferous gravels of California, is still too much involved in obscurity to permit of its being used in positive evidence; nor can much dependence be placed upon the calculations which have been made to determine the age of the man of Florida, which was discovered by Pourtales upwards of thirty...
Page 74 - ... you. In the stag, it will be observed, the skull is high, and shows but little of that anterior attenuation which is such a distinctive feature of the skull of the elk. The nasal bones of the former, again, are remarkably long when compared with the similar bones of the latter, and the premaxillaries, instead of being projected forward along the horizontal plane of the base of the skull, are deflected sharply downward. In all these points, it will be seen, the newly discovered form (Cervalces)...
Page 86 - ... which was discovered by Pourtales upwards of thirty years ago. I have the pleasure to lay before you this evening two human vertebra, which I obtained two winters ago from a semi-compact ferruginous sandstone on Sarasota Bay (west coast of Florida), and which our distinguished President, Professor Joseph Leidy, has kindly determined for me to be probably the last dorsal and first lumbar. The vertebrae, it will be observed, are of iron, there having been a complete substitution of the bony material...
Page 2 - ... as applied to organic beings. There is much misconception on this point, arising primarily from an erroneous interpretation of the relations which the different animal and vegetable organisms hold to one another. Evolution, in its more common acceptation in the sense I propose treating of it to-night signifies merely the evolving or production of new organic forms from forms more or less unlike themselves ; it recognizes as the result of its action that all the varied animal and vegetable...
Page 8 - Fishes ; earliest laud (snail) and freshwater Shells ; Shell-Fish abundant ; decline' of Trilobites ; May-flies; Crab. Earliest Fish ; the first Air-Breathers (Insect, Scorpion) ; Brachiopods and 4-gilled Cephalopods very abundant ; Trilobites ; Corals : Graptolites.

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