Technical Options for Conservation of Metals: Case Studies of Selected Metals and Products
General Books LLC, 2011 - 126 pages
Original publisher: Washington, D.C.: Congress of the U.S., Office of Technology Assessment: for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., . LC Number: TA459 .U615 1979 OCLC Number: (OCoLC)05542458 Subject: Metals -- Conservation -- United States. Excerpt: ... .-?6 Metal Losses and Conservation Options Figure 3. - Estimated Metal Losses for Each Loss Category, Expressed as a Percentage of-Domestic Mill Shipments ( 1974 ) 40 Ni Fe = Iron Cu = Copper I Al = Aluminum Cu Mn = 122 % Mn = Manganese 30 Cr = Chromium Nickel = ( n I'Pt = Tungsten = Platinum gro Jp I Ni =.-E 20 Fe E w Cr al Mn v Cu ii ' e Mr Q w Al W c Cr.-Mn w Cr Al Cr Cu 10 Fe Pt Mn Al w Al I Al 41 Pt Cu Al Fe Fe w Cu Mn dn N i Pt J mm 0 Loss category IS NOTE See chapter Ill, tables 20 and 21 for data on which flqure 3 based SOURCE OTA based on data from Working papers One an-d Two options are metal recycling, product remanufactur-constant demand ). This will elimi nate the losses ing and reuse, R & D on substitute materials and ( e.g., milling and concentrating t hat would have processes, and R & D on metal recovery from low-been associated with producing hat amount of grade ores. metal. Metal recycling and product remanufacturing have multiple leverage because, in addition to the Technical Options for Reducing Excess direct reduction in losses of unrecovered metals in Metal in the Materials Cycle obsolete products, these options lead to an addi-tional savings in future years. For example, if Losses from the materials cycle, as discussed through product recycling an additional 10 percent above, represent one of two major classes of waste. of obsolete office equipment in a given year is re-The second class of waste is the use of excess manufactured, 10 percent less metal will be re-metal in the materials cycle. The different types of quired for next year's production run ( assuming excess metal usage are shown in figure 5.
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