The Natural Vegetation of North America: An Introduction
Describes the major vegetation types of North America and their ecological basis, emphasizing such environmental factors as climate, soil, topography, and fire. Part 1 outlines the basics of vegetation science (such as composition, structure, function); Part II considers each type of vegetation in terms of the background material in Part I. Examines major plant communities and dominant species, emphasizing species adaption to show the interrelationship between vegetation and environment. Each vegetation chapter concludes with a section on human impact. Includes suggested readings and over 125 illustrations.
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adapted Alpine tundra annual Appalachian Arctic tundra Arcto-Tertiary Geoflora areas association Basin Boreal forest California canopy centimeters central Chaparral common coniferous forest conifers creosote bush deciduous forest dense density developed distribution dominated drought east eastern hemlock Ecology ecosystems elevations energy environment environmental factors epiphytes evergreen example Figure fire forest region formation Geoflora grassland grassland vegetation grazing growth growth-form Hardwoods herbs important increase layer leaf leaves lichens major mature meters Mixed Mesophytic montane mosses North America northern nutrients oak Quercus occurs organic matter percent photosynthesis pine Pinus Pinyon-Juniper Podzolic prairie precipitation produce result Rocky Mountains root systems savanna seeds Sequoia Sequoia National Park seral shrubland shrubs Sierra Nevada slopes soil moisture solar radiation Sonoran Desert southern species spruce stands summer surface Tall temperatures tion topographic relief trees Tropical Rain Forest tundra plants tundra vegetation variation vegetation wind winter woodland zone