Levels of Processing 30 Years on: A Special Issue of Memory
Martin A. Conway
Psychology Press, 2002 - Psychology - 124 pages
This special issue of the journal Memory celebrates thirty years of research into the levels of processing (LoP) framework. Evaluations are provided by leading researchers, including the original proposers, Craik and Lockhart. In addition new findings are reported and extensions of, as well as alternatives to, LoP are described. Overall the collected papers show that much remains to recommend the processing approach to memory, and fruitful theorizing with empirical consequences are readily derivable from the LoP framework.
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activity analysis approach automatic retrieval baseline Blaxton cessing Cognitive Neuroscience Cognitive Psychology concept consciousness cortex Craik and Lockhart deep study condition depth of processing dissociations encoding and retrieval encoding-retrieval match Endel Tulving episodic memory Erlbaum Associates Inc estimates of automatic exclusion instructions Experimental Psychology explicit F.I.M. Craik Eds Fergus Craik fMRI function Gardiner H.L. Roediger Hillsdale human memory implicit memory inclusion Jacoby Journal of Experimental Journal of Verbal Kolers Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Learning and Verbal levels of processing Levels-of-processing effects Mandler memory performance memory research memory systems memory trace mental Psychology Moscovitch Nyberg organisation orienting tasks participants perceptual specificity priming procedure Psychology Press recognition memory rehearsal Reingold remember remember/know representations retention retrieval cues retrieval processes Richardson-Klavehn robust encoding Roediger saccades Schacter semantic dementia semantic encoding shallow study stimulus strict creativity structures studied words theory tion Toth transfer-appropriate processing Velichkovsky Verbal Behavior Verbal Learning viewing mode visual