Philosophical Ethics (Google eBook)

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Westview Press, Dec 1, 1997 - Philosophy - 272 pages
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Why is ethics part of philosophy? Stephen Darwall’s Philosophical Ethics introduces students to ethics from a distinctively philosophical perspective, one that weaves together central ethical questions such as “What has value?” and “What are our moral obligations?” with fundamental philosophical issues such as “What is value?” and “What can a moral obligation consist in?”With one eye on contemporary discussions and another on classical texts, Philosophical Ethics shows how Hobbes, Mill, Kant, Aristotle, and Nietzsche all did ethical philosophy—how, for example, they sought to gain insight into what has value through understanding what value itself is. After an introductory section, and one on main approaches to metaethics, chapters discuss “modern” philosophical moralists—Hobbes, Mill, and Kant—and pre- and postmodern philosophical approaches to ethics in Aristotle, Nietzsche, and the ethics of care.Throughout, the reader is invited to do—rather than just read about—philosophical ethics and, in doing so, to think through questions that face all thoughtful human beings. Themes include the nature of value and moral obligation, freedom and choice, human flourishing, excellence and merit, radical critiques of morality, and the importance of relationships for human life.
  

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Contents

What Is Philosophical Ethics?
4
Normative Ethics
6
Metaethics
9
Philosophical Ethics
13
A Plan of Study
15
Metaethics The Basic Questions
18
What Is There for Ethical Convictions to Be About?
22
A Related Problem Concerning Evidence in Ethics
23
Desire Higher Goods and the Ideal Judgment Theory
120
A Summary
123
Mill II
124
From Value to Morality
126
ActUtilitarianism
128
Defending AU Against Some Objections
130
Some Case Studies
132
RuleUtilitarianism
133

A Fundamental Dilemma of Metaethics
26
Suggested Reading
27
Naturalism
28
Ethical Naturalism
31
Problems for Ethical Naturalism
35
Suggested Reading
39
Theological Voluntarism
40
Reductive Versus Nonreductive Supernaturalism
41
What Theological Voluntarism Is Not
43
A Reductive Account of Gods Authority
47
Rational Intuitionism
50
Irreducibility and Objective Purport
51
The Nature of Rational Intuitionism
52
Problems for Rational Intuitionism
53
Suggested Reading
55
The Ideal Judgment Theory
56
Three Models of Ethical Judgment
58
Aspects of Ideal Judgment
59
Problems for the Ideal Judgment Theory
60
Another Version of the Ideal Judgment Theory? Ideal Practical Judgment or Agency Theory
61
The Error Theory and Ethical Relativism
64
Ethical Relativism
65
What Ethical Relativism Is Not
67
Could Ethical Relativism Be True?
69
Suggested Reading
71
Noncognitivism
72
Varieties of Noncognitivism
73
The Sources of Noncognitivism
75
Problems for Noncognitivism and Possible Responses
76
Interlude
82
Hobbes I
88
Desire Deliberation and Value
91
Laws of Nature and Normativity
94
Hobbes II
98
What If Everyone Did That?
101
Fairness Natural Law and Political Authority
102
Why Should We Keep Promises? Hobbess Reply to the Fool
103
Hobbess Theory of Morality and Moral Obligation
107
Conclusion and Remaining Issues
108
Suggested Reading
109
Mill I
110
Mills Project
111
A Criterion of Right and Wrong
112
Nonmoral Good and Hedonism
114
Pleasure Desire and Mills Proof
115
Hedonism and the Genesis of Desire
119
RU Versus AU and the Normativity of Morality
138
Suggested Reading
139
Kant I
140
Theoretical and Practical
141
A Preliminary
143
Kants Project in the Groundwork
145
Necessity Universality and the A Priori
146
The Good Will
148
Moral Worth
150
A Derivation of the Categorical Imperative?
153
Kant II
156
The Formula of Universal Law
159
The Formula of the End in Itself
164
The Formula of Autonomy and the Realm of Ends
167
One Categorical Imperative?
168
Deontology or Consequentialism?
169
An Ideal Agent Theory of Normative Reasons
170
Final Thoughts
173
Nietzsche
178
A Genealogy of Morals
179
The Basic Idea
180
The Ethics of Aristocracy
183
Morality Hatred and the Herd
185
A Perfectionist Ethics
187
Beyond Morality?
189
Morality Versus Supramorality
190
Aristotle I
192
Aristotle II
204
Acquiring Virtue
207
The Theory of the Mean
209
Principles and Practical Wisdom
211
Conclusion
215
Suggested Reading
216
Ethics of Care
218
From the Perspectives of Kohlberg and Gilligan
219
Ethics of Rights Versus Ethics of Care
221
An Example
222
What Is at Issue?
224
Particularism
225
Morality as Derivable from IndividualRegarding Care and Respect
226
Conclusion
229
NOTES
230
GLOSSARY
234
INDEX
246
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About the author (1997)

Stephen Darwall is professor of philosophy at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and is the author of Impartial Reason and The British Moralists and the Internal “Ought”: 1640–1740.

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