Iron and Steel: A Treatise on the Smelting, Refining, and Mechanical Processes of the Iron and Steel Industry, Including the Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Wrought Iron, Carbon, High-speed and Alloy Steels, Cast Iron, and Steel Castings, and the Application of These Materials in Machine and Tool Construction (Google eBook)

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The Industrial Press, 1918 - Iron - 328 pages
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Page 5 - Gray Pig Iron and Gray Cast Iron. Pig iron and cast iron in the fracture of which the iron itself is nearly or quite concealed by graphite, so that the fracture has the gray color of graphite.
Page 5 - Steel. Iron which is malleable at least in some one range of temperature, and in addition is either (a) cast into an initially malleable mass, or (//') is capable of hardening greatly by sudden cooling, or (c) is both so cast and so capable of hardening.
Page 5 - Refined Cast Iron. Cast iron which has had most of its silicon removed in the refinery furnace, but still contains so much carbon as to be distinctly cast iron.
Page 5 - Steel Castings: Unforged and unrolled castings made of Bessemer, open-hearth, crucible, or any other steel. Washed Metal: Cast iron from which most of the silicon and phosphor have been removed by the Bell-Krupp process without removing much of the carbon, still contains enough carbon to be cast iron.
Page 4 - Bessemer Pig Iron. Iron which contains so little phosphorus and sulphur that it can be used for conversion into steel by the original or acid Bessemer process (restricted to pig iron containing not more than 0.10 per cent of phosphorus).
Page 93 - In this form of apparatus a standard steel drill is caused to make a definite number of revolutions while it is pressed with standard force against the specimen to be tested. The hardness is automatically recorded on a diagram on which a dead soft material gives a horizontal line, while a material as hard as the drill itself gives a vertical line, intermediate hardness being represented by the corresponding angle between 0 and 90.
Page 5 - This name is also applied loosely to molten cast iron which is about to be so cast into pigs or is in a condition in which it could readily be cast into pigs.
Page 4 - Steels which owe their properties chiefly to the presence of an element other than carbon. Basic Pig Iron: Pig iron containing so little silicon and sulphur that it is suited for easy conversion into steel by the basic openhearth process (restricted to pig iron containing not more than 1.00 per cent of silicon).
Page 93 - Test. In this method, a hardened steel ball is pressed into the smooth surface of the metal so as to make an indentation of a size such as can be conveniently measured under the microscope. The spherical area of the indentation being calculated, and the pressure being known, the stress per unit of area when the ball comes to rest is calculated, and the hardness number obtained. Within certain limits the value obtained is independent of the size of the ball, and of the amount of pressure. Keep's...
Page 4 - MALLEABLE PIG IRON, an American trade name for the pig iron suitable for converting into malleable castings through the process of melting, treating when molten, casting in a brittle state, and then making malleable without remelting. The term should be used with care to avoid confusion. This material is also called in trade in America " malleable

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