European Atrocity, African Catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State and Its Aftermath

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Psychology Press, 2002 - History - 284 pages
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There is a broad consensus among those who are concerned with Africa that the plight of the continent is approaching the catastrophic. Partly the roots of the problem are historical, stemming from the exploitation and colonisation of the continent by European powers. An appreciation of the history of the relationship between Europe and Africa, a major episode of which this book examines, is indispensable to an understanding of the continent's present predicament. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries King Leopold II of the Belgians established a colony in Africa, which, as the Congo Free State, became a byword for unremitting exploitation and widespread atrocities. This book describes the creation, the development and the collapse both of this regime and of the Belgian colony that replaced it. Conclusions are drawn about the nature of European colonialism in Africa and the consequences for Europe itself.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
BELGIUM AND AFRICA
9
Belgium the Coburgs and the Quest for Colonies
13
Europe and Africa
21
PART TWO FOUNDATIONS
31
Camerons Journey Across Africa
33
The Brussels Geographical Conference
39
Henry Morton Stanley
47
Leopolds Tashoda
142
PART FIVE EXPLOITATION
155
The Domainal System
157
The Initial Belgian Takeover Bids
166
PART SIX NEMESIS
173
The Storm Gathers
175
E D Morel
185
The Casement Report
193

The Comite dEtudes du HaulCongo
55
Stanley and de Brazza
62
PART THREE ACQUISITION
75
The AngloPortuguese Treaty
77
The Campaign for Recognition
85
The Berlin West Africa Conference
95
The Creation of the Free State
105
PART FOUR EXPANSION
109
The Early Years
111
The Rescue of Amin Pasha
122
Katanga and the Arabs
134
The Losing Battle
202
The Belgian Enquiry
211
The End Game
220
PART SEVEN AFTERMATH
233
Belgian Colonialism
235
Africas Legacy
246
Notes
254
Select Bibliography
268
Index
275
Copyright

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About the author (2002)

Sir Martin Ewans is a former diplomat and the author of Afghanistan - A New History (Curzon, 2001)

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