California black oak drying problems and the bacterial factor
This paper reports on a cooperative study between the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and the Kimberly-Clark Corporation to explore the causes and extent of drying degrade in 4/4 black oak lumber from several different saw timber stands in Shasta County, California. Most drying degrade in this study was traced to heartwood that was weakened by anaerobic bacteria in the living tree. We believe bacterial tree infections may be responsible for most of the unexpected drying degrade in California black oak lumber in general.
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4/4 California black air drying air-drying anaerobic bacteria Anderson average bacterial weakening bacterially infected heartwood Better lumber black oak lumber black oak trees board feet bridges Calif California black oak California Forest Products Clostridium collapse Common and Better decay developed dry bulb temperature drying conditions drying degrade drying problems Electrical resistance Ellwood flatsawn Forest Products Laboratory fresh logs Full diameter green 4/4 California green lumber honeycomb inches initial dry bulb kiln charge kiln dried green kiln drying kiln schedule kiln-dried lumber Kimberly-Clark living tree load log stringers microbial mill study modulus of elasticity modulus of rupture noninfected heartwood normal heartwood oak heartwood percent moisture content presorting Prod rancid Range Exp red and black ring failure sapwood sawmill scanning electron Shasta County shrinkage Sitka spruce logs Smith softwood specific gravity strength surface checks tests timber tyloses type of heartwood volatile fatty acids Ward warp west coast