The Grammar of Science (Google eBook)

Front Cover
A. and C. Black, 1900 - Classification of sciences - 548 pages
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Contents

OtherConsciousness as an Eject
48
The Scientific Validity of an Inference
55
The External Universe
60
Outside and Inside Myself
63
Sensations as the Ultimate Source of the Materials of Knowledge
66
Shadow and Reality
69
Individuality
71
I6 The Futility of Thingsinthcmselves
72
The Term Knowledge meaningless if applied to Unthinkable Things
74
Summary and Literature
75
CHAPTER III
77
Of the Word Iaw and its Meanings
79
Natural Law relative to Man
82
Man as the Maker of Natural Law
85
The Two Senses of the Words Natural Law
87
Confusion between the Two Senses of Natural Law
88
The Reason behind Nature
90
True Relation of Civil and Natural Law
93
Physical and Metaphysical Supersensuousness
95
Progress in the Formulating of Natural Law
96
The Universality of Scientific Law
100
The Mind as a SortingMachine
106
Science Natural Theology and Metaphysics
107
Conclusions
109
Summary and Literature
112
CHAPTER IV
113
CAUSE AND EFFECTPROBABILITY
117
Force as a Cause 11G 3 Will as a Cause
118
Secondary Causes involve no Enforcement
120
Is Will a First Cause?
122
Will as a Secondary Cause
123
First Causes have no Existence for Science
127
Cause and Effect as the Routine of Experience
128
Width of the Term Cause
131
The Universe of SenseImpressions as a Universe of Motions
132
Perceptions
134
Routine in Perception Is a necessary Condition of Knowledge
136
ij Probable and Provable
139
Probability as to l1reaches in the Routine of Perception
142
The Bases of Laplaces Theory lie in an Kxperiencc of Ignorance
145
Nature of Laplaces Investigation
147
The Permanency of Routine for the Future 14S Summary and Literature 1 50
148
CHAPTER V
152
The Infinite Bigness of Space
157
The Infinite Divisibility of Space
159
The Space of Memory and Thought
162
Conceptions and Perceptions
164
Sameness and Continuity
167
Conceptual Space Geometrical Boundaries
170
Surfaces as Boundaries
172
Conceptual Discontinuity of Bodies The Atom
174
Conceptual Continuity Ether
178
On the General Nature of Scientific Conceptions 12 Time as a Mode of Perception
181
Conceptual Time and its Measurement
186
Concluding Remarks on Space and Time Summary and Literature 57 159 102 I64 i 67 170 i74 178 7t 181 I SI
190
CHAPTER VI
193
Steepness and Slope
215
Speed as a Slope Velocity
217
The Velocity Diagram or llodograph Acceleration
219
Acceleration as a Spurt and a Shunt
222
Curvature
224
The Relation between Curvature and Normal Acceleration
228
Fundamental Propositions in the Geometry of Motion
231
CHAPTER VII
237
All things movebut only in Conception 2 39
239
The Three Problems
242
How the Physicists define Matter 244
244
Does Matter occupy Space?
248
The Commonsense View of Matter as Impenetrable and Hard
252
Individuality does not denote Sameness in Substratum
254
Hardness not characteristic of Matter
258
Matter as nonMatter in Motion
259
The Ether as Perfect Fluid and Perfect Jelly
262
The VortexRing Atom and the EtherSquirt Atom
265
A Material Loophole into the Supersensuous
267
The Difficulties of a Perceptual Ether
270
Why do Bodies move?
272
Summary and Literature
276
CHAPTER VIII
278
The Limits to Mechanism
282
The First Law of Motion
284
The Second Law of Motion or the Principle of Inertia
286
The Third Law of Motion Mutual Acceleration is determined by Relative Position
290
Velocity as an Epitome of Past History Mechanism and Material ism Laplaces Ideal Goal
295
The Fourth Law of Motion
299
The Scientific Conception of Mass
302
The Fifth Law of Motion The Definition of Force
303
Equality of Masses tested by Weighing
306
How far does the Mechanism of the Fourthand Fifth Laws of Motion extend?
310
Density as the Basis of the Kinetic Scale
312
The Influence of Aspect on the Corpuscular Dance 316
316
CHAPTER IX
328
3 Mechanism and Metaphysics in Theories of Heredity
334
5 Do the Laws of Motion apply to Life?
341
S The Perpetuity of Life or Biogenesis
347
On the Relation of the Conceptual Description to the Phenomenal
354
Primitive History descril1able in terms of the Principles of Evolution
363
CHAPTER X
372
Individual and Racial
381
Correlation
392
The Organism and its Growth
402
to The Unsolved Problems
412
CHAPTER XI
421
J On Exclusive Inheritance and the Law of Reversion
486
On the Inheritance of the Duration of Life Proportions of
496
CHAPTER XII
504
Spencers Classification
510
Concrete Science Inorganic Phenomena
519
Applied Mathematics and BioPhysics as Cross Links 5 7
527
APPENDIX
533
INDEX
541

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 324 - To every action there is always an equal and contrary reaction ; or the mutual actions of any two bodies are always equal and oppositely directed.
Page 322 - Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line, except in so far as it may be compelled by impressed forces to change that state.
Page 32 - The world little knows how many of the thoughts and theories which have passed through the mind of a scientific investigator have been crushed in silence and secrecy by his own severe criticism and adverse examination ; that in the most successful instances not a tenth of the suggestions, the hopes, the wishes, the preliminary conclusions have been realized.
Page 33 - ... it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here then I had at last got a theory by which to work...
Page 280 - Thus molecular science sets us face to face with physiological theories. It forbids the physiologist from imagining that structural details of infinitely small dimensions can furnish an explanation of the infinite variety which exists in the properties and functions of the most minute organisms.
Page 250 - So, naturalists observe, a flea Has smaller fleas that on him prey; And- these have smaller still to bite 'em, And so proceed ad infinitum.
Page 12 - The man who classifies facts of any kind whatever, who sees their mutual relation and describes their sequences, is applying the scientific method and is a man of science. The facts may belong to the past history of mankind, to the social statistics of our great cities, to the atmosphere of the most distant stars, to the digestive organs of a worm, or to the life of a scarcely visible bacillus.
Page 456 - In the tenth generation a man has [theoretically] 1024 tenth great-grandparents. He is eventually the product of a population of this size, and their mean can hardly differ from that of the general population. It is the heavy weight of this mediocre ancestry which causes the son of an exceptional father to regress towards the general population mean ; it is the balance of this sturdy commonplaceness which enables the son of a degenerate father to escape the whole burden of the parental ill.
Page 86 - Law in the scientific sense is thus essentially a product of the human mind and has no meaning apart from man.
Page 298 - We ought then to regard the present state of the universe as the effect of its anterior state and as the cause of the one which is to follow. Given for one instant an intelligence which could comprehend all the forces by which nature is animated and the respective situation of the beings who compose it an intelligence sufficiently vast to submit these data to analysis...

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