Arsenic in Drinking Water (Google eBook)

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National Academies Press, Jun 14, 1999 - Science - 330 pages
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been considering a more stringent regulation of arsenic in water. A significant reduction in the maximum contaminant level (MCL) could increase compliance costs for water utilities. This book discusses the adequacy of the current EPA MCL for protecting human health in the context of stated EPA policy and provides an unbiased scientific basis for deriving the arsenic standard for drinking water and surface water.

Arsenic in Drinking Water evaluates epidemiological data on the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic health effects of arsenic exposure of Taiwanese populations and compares those effects with the effects of arsenic exposure demonstrated in other countries-including the United States.

The book also reviews data on toxicokinetics, metabolism, and mechanism and mode of action of arsenic to ascertain how these data could assist in assessing human health risks from arsenic exposures. This volume recommends specific changes to improve the toxicity analyses and risk characterization. The implications of the changes for EPA's current MCL for arsenic are also described.

  

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Contents

Executive Summary
1
Introduction
10
The U S Environmental Protection Agencys 1988 Risk Assess ment for Arsenic
16
Chemistry and Analysis of Arsenic Species in Water and Biological Materials
27
Health Effects of Arsenic
83
Noncancer Effects
101
Summary and Conclusions
130
Disposition of Inorganic Arsenic
150
Biomarkers of Arsenic Exposure
177
Mechanisms of Toxicity
193
Variation in Human Sensitivity
229
Essentiality and Therapeutic Uses
251
Statistical Issues
264
Risk Characterization
299
Addendum to Chapter 10
307
Copyright

CONTENTS xv
163

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