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India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy
No preview available - 2008
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absorbed acid and loss acre albuminous alkaline alumina analysis animals artificial manures bone-ash bone-dust bone-earth burnt clay cake carbonate of lime Carbonic acid cent cheese chemical Chloride of sodium Cirencester composition constituents Containing nitrogen coprolites crop curd dissolved dung effect Equal to ammonia experiments farm farmer fermentation fertilising fertilizing flesh-forming free ammonia fresh dung grains of ammonia guano gypsum Insoluble mineral matter Insoluble siliceous Insoluble silicious matter iron and alumina land limestones liquid manure Magnesia mangolds milk Moisture mucilage nitrate of soda organic matter Oxides of iron Peruvian guano phosphate of lime phosphoric acid plants Plot portion potash practical produce proportion protein compounds quantity rennet roots rotten dung Royal Agricultural College sample sand scouring Soluble organic matter soluble phosphate Soluble silica solution straw substances sugar sulphate of ammonia sulphate of lime sulphuric acid superphosphate swedes turnips vegetable water of combination weight whey whilst woody fibre
Page 69 - As all soils with a moderate proportion of clay, possess in a remarkable degree the power of absorbing and retaining manuring matters, none of the saline and soluble organic constituents are wasted even by a heavy fall of rain. It may, indeed, be questioned, whether it is more advisable to plough in the manure at once, or to let it lie for some time on the surface, and to give the rain full opportunity to wash it into the soil.
Page 70 - If rain is excluded from dung-heaps, or little rain falls at a time, the loss in ammonia is trilling, and no saline matters of course are removed; but, if much rain falls, especially if it descends in heavy showers upon the dungheap, a serious loss in ammonia, soluble organic matters, phosphate of lime, and salts of potash is incurred, and the manure becomes rapidly deteriorated in value, whilst at the same time it is diminished in weight.
Page 9 - The saline substances — chloride of sodium and potassium, sulphate and phosphate of potash and soda, and some other mineral matters occurring in food — supply the blood, juice of flesh, and various animal juices, with the necessary mineral constituents.
Page 27 - ... for this reason, should not be turned more frequently than absolutely necessary. " 17. No advantage appears to result from carrying on the fermentation of dung too far, but every disadvantage. " 18. Farmyard manure becomes deteriorated in value when kept in heaps exposed to the weather, the more the longer it is kept. " 19. The loss in manuring matters, which is incurred in keeping...
Page 71 - ... 24. The worst method of making manure is to produce it by animals kept in open yards, since a large proportion of valuable fertilizing matters is wasted in a short time; and after the lapse of twelve months, at least two-thirds of the substance of the manure is wasted, and only one-third, inferior in quality to fresh dung, is left behind.
Page 9 - Sulphuric acid 1-27 l-49 100-00 100-00 Before offering any remarks on the composition of fresh manure, it may be well to insert in this place a table representing the detailed composition of fresh farmyard manure:— Composition of Fresh Farmyard Manure (composed of Horse, Pig, and Cow Dung, about 14 days old). Analysis made Nov. 3, 1854. Detailed Composition of Manure in Natural State. Water 66-17 •Soluble organic matter .. .. , 2-48 Soluble inorganic matter (ash):— Soluble silica -237 Phosphate...
Page 31 - ... contact. • (3) The absolute quantity of ammonia which is absorbed by a soil is larger when a stronger solution of ammonia is passed through it, but relatively weaker solutions are more thoroughly exhausted than stronger ones. (4) A soil which has absorbed as much ammonia as it will from a weak solution, takes up a fresh quantity of ammonia when it is brought into contact with a stronger solution. (5) In passing solutions of salts of ammonia through soils, the ammonia alone is absorbed, and...
Page 26 - I wish to enforce is, that when no other choice is left but either to set up the manure in a heap in a corner of the field, or to spread it on the field, without ploughing it in directly, to adopt the latter plan. In the case of very light sandy soils it may perhaps not be advisable to spread out the manure a long time before it is ploughed in, since such soils do not possess the power of retaining manuring matters in any marked degree. On light sandy soils I would suggest to manure with well-fermented...