Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, 2001 - Medical - 338 pages
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In all possible industrial, military and household/personal applications, the number of digital devices operating with data rates of hundreds of Megabits, using processor chips with Gigahertz clocks, has increased astronomically. At the same time, a myriad of popular RF receivers like portable telephones, laptop PCs with integrated wireless modems, wireless Internet, and other electronic devices, are becoming ubiquitous, such that the number of sensitive, licit receivers operating within a square kilometer of an urban area can be counted in tens of thousands. In the crowded space that they share, the conjunction of both events is increasing the number of potential interference situations, especially in the upper VHF and UHF regions where spurious radiations are most difficult to contain. There is, in addition, a growing, although controversial, concern about the possible health hazard caused by long exposure to near fields of low power radio transmitters. All these aspects result in a continuous effort for lowering RF radiations.
This new edition of Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design retains the step-by-step approach for incorporating EMC into every new design, from the ground up. Quite different from other classical EMC books, it approaches the problem from a development engineer's viewpoint, starting with the selection of quieter IC technologies, their implementation into a noise-free printed circuit layout, and the gathering of all these into a low radiation packaging, including I/O filtering, connectors and cables considerations.
Equally far from a cookbook of recipes, all guidelines are supported by thorough, but relatively easy and comprehensive calculated examples, allowing a quantitative design, instead of purely qualitative. New to this edition is material on surface mount techniques, IC's ground-bounce, random-versus-periodic frequency spectra and recent progress in low cost ferrite and filter components. Also included is detailed information on radiation from high-speed chips (e.g. Pentium >200 MHz) and the efforts by some manufacturers to reduce it. The book has numerous tables, all of which have been updated to reflect the latest changes in the field, including a brief overview of the U.S. and worldwide emission tests.
Controlling Radiated Emissions by Design is an invaluable tool for helping design engineers, EMC specialists and technicians develop more efficient and economical control of emissions.
  

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Contents

Generalities on Radiated Interference
1
12 BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF RADIATED EMI
2
13 EMI TERMINOLOGY AND UNITS
4
14 US AND WORLDWIDE REGULATORY APPROACH AGAINST RADIATED EMI
6
146 Intrasystem vs Intersystem EMI
13
Electric and Magnetic Fields from Simple Circuit Shapes
15
21 FIELDS RADIATED BY A LOOP
16
22 FIELDS RADIATED BY A STRAIGHT WIRE
20
84 SHIELDING THE POWER SUPPLY MODULE
176
85 EFFECT OF THE POWER SUPPLY FILTER ON RADIATED EMI
179
Reducing Radiated EMI via Internal Cabling and Packaging
187
92 INTERNAL COAXIAL AND SHIELDED CABLES
190
93 SOME HIDDEN RADIATING ANTENNAS
194
94 INTERNAL CONNECTION OF OV REFERENCE AND CORRESPONDING GROUND LOOPS
197
95 IO CONNECTOR AREAS
199
96 A FEW OTHER RADIATED EMI SOURCES
215

23 EXTENSION TO PRACTICAL REALLIFE CIRCUITS
23
24 DIFFERENTIALMODE RADIATION FROM SIMPLE CIRCUITS
30
25 COMMONMODE RADIATION FROM EXTERNAL CABLES
33
Fields Radiated by Nonsinusoidal Sources
51
32 SPECTRUM AND RADIATION FROM BROADBAND SOURCES
59
33 RANDOM VERSUS PERIODIC SPECTRA
62
34 PECULIAR ASPECTS OF SOME FREQUENCY SPECTRA
64
General Strategy for Designing a Low Radiation Product
75
42 DESIGN CONTROL AREAS FOR RADIATED EMISSION REDUCTION
77
43 DESIGN MILESTONES FOR RADIATED EMI CONTROL
79
44 INFLUENCE OF THE RESIDENT SOFTWARE ON RADIATED EMI
83
Controlling Radiated Emissions at the Chip and Integrated Circuit Level
85
52 CALCULAT1NG THE IDEAL BYPASS CAPACITOR
92
53 GENERATION OF COMMON MODE BY IC GROUND BOUNCE
96
54 REDUCING EMI GENERATION AT THE IC ITSELF
97
55 INFLUENCE OF THE IC PACKAGE
101
57 SUMMARY OF RADIATION CONTROL AT THE CHIP AND IC LEVEL
105
Printed Circuit Board Design
107
62 BRUSHUP ON SELFINDUCTANCE OF CONDUCTORS
108
63 SINGLELAYER BOARDS
112
64 MULTILAYER BOARDS
126
65 CROSSTALK
136
66 IMPEDANCE MATCHING
145
67 CARD CONNECTOR PIN ASSIGNMENT
148
68 GROUNDING OF OV REFERENCE TO CHASSIS
152
69 EMC SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR PCB DESIGNS
153
610 SUMMARY OF RADIATION CONTROL AT PCB LEVEL
154
Emission Control in Mother Boards and Backplanes
157
71 WIREWRAPPED BACKPLANES
159
74 CONNECTOR AREAS AT BACKPLANE INTERFACES
161
75 INCREASED RADIATION IN CONNECTORS AREAS
162
Controlling Radiated Fields from Switch Mode Power Supplies
165
82 EFFECT OF ACTUAL CURRENT WAVEFORMS
168
83 PACKAGING AND CIRCUIT LAYOUT
170
Box Shielding
217
101 HOW TO DETERMINE BOX ATTENUATION REQUIREMENTS
218
SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS OF MATERIALS
220
103 SHIELDING EFFECTIVENESS OF CONDUCTIVE PLASTICS
225
104 FIELD ATTENUATION THROUGH APERTURES
228
105 ALTERATIONS OF THE IDEAL HOLEINAWALL MODEL
234
106 METHODS OF LEAKAGE REDUCTION AND APERTURE TREATMENT
237
107 SPECIALLY HARDENED EQUIPMENT HOUSINGS
252
BOX DESIGN FOR A GIVEN SE OBJECTIVE
255
109 SHIELD1NG COMPONENTS FOR MASSPRODUCTION CONSUMER PRODUCTS
257
1010 SUMMARY OF RADIATION CONTROL VIA BOX SHIELDING
258
Controlling Radiation from External Cables
259
112 LINE BALANC1NG DEVICES
260
113 REDUCING CM RADIATION BY FERRITE LOADING
264
114 REDUCING DM RADIATION BY TWISTING
270
115 REDUCING CABLE RADIATION BY SHIELDING
272
116 DISCUSS1ON REGARDING SHIELDED VS UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIRS
291
117 ELIMINATING CABLE RADIATION BY FIBER OPTICS
292
Principal Radiated Emission Specifications and Test Methods
293
122 CISPR INTERNATIONAL LIMITS TEST INSTRUMENTATION AND METHODS
296
123 FCC PART 15 subpart B
298
126 EN 55014CISPR 14
300
129 CISPR 25 AUTOMOBILE ELECTRONICS
302
1210 RTCADO160
303
Troubleshooting Radiated EMI Problems
305
QUANTIFYING THE dB REDUCTION
306
133 APPROXIMATION OF RADIATED RFI LEVELS FROM IO CABLE CM CURRENTS VHF REGION
312
The Modified Dipole Model
319
Some Validation Results Supporting the Simplified Radiation Model
325
Inductances and Capacitances of PCB Traces
329
A few equivalent circuits for component modeling via SPICE MicroCap or similar simulation tools
333
References
335
Index
337
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