Growing Public: Volume 2, Further Evidence: Social Spending and Economic Growth since the Eighteenth Century (Google eBook)
Growing Public examines the question of whether social policies that redistribute income impose constraints on economic growth. What kept prospering nations from using taxes for social programs until the end of the nineteenth century? Why did taxes and spending then grow so much, and what are the prospects for social spending in this century? Why did North America become a leader in public education in some ways and not others? Lindert finds answers in the economic history and logic of political voice, population ageing, and income growth. Contrary to traditional beliefs, the net national costs of government social programs are virtually zero. This book not only shows that no Darwinian mechanism has punished the welfare states, but uses history to explain why this surprising result makes sense. Contrary to the intuition of many economists and the ideology of many politicians, social spending has contributed to, rather than inhibited, economic growth.
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Part Six Accounting for Social Spending Jobs and Growth
Appendix A Time Series on School Enrollments and Teachers 18301930
Appendix B Conflicting Data on Elementary School Enrollments within the United Kingdom 18511931
Appendix C Public and Total Educational Expenditures as Percentages of National Product since 1850
Appendix D Regressions Predicting Schooling Growth Social Transfers and Direct Taxes 18801930
Appendix E Regressions Predicting Social Spending Growth and Employment OECD 19621995
ALMP Appendix Table Austria autocracy average behavior Belgium bias Catholic Chapter Coeff coefficients contrast corporatism cubic function deadweight costs democracy dependent variable earlier economic growth elderly share electoral elite employee protection laws enrollments EPLs equation estimates Ethnic fractionalization expenditures Fingerprint Finland five to fourteen fixed country effects fixed effects forces France GDP cost GDP per capita GDP/capita global growth effects higher income international dollars Italy Japan labor market lagged Lindert lobbying marginal nondemocracy nonlinear Norway OECD OECD countries overall percent of GDP percentage periods political voice postwar predicted pressure groups primary education productivity public education public pensions quadratic redistributive regressions rise role sample share of GDP shift social spending statistical subsidized supply shocks support ratio Sweden taxes and transfers taxpayers tests tobit total social transfers unemployed unemployment compensation unemployment rates United Kingdom voter turnout voting wage welfare workers zero