Engineering Decisions for Life Quality: How Safe is Safe Enough? (Google eBook)

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Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 29, 2009 - Technology & Engineering - 206 pages
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Engineering Decisions for Life Quality: How Safe is Safe Enough? provides a foundation and a theoretical basis for managing risk to an acceptable level under the real-world constraint of limited resources. The focus is not on risks as such, but on what can be done to maximize the positive outcomes of risk in terms of improvements to the quality of life. The principal focus of Engineering Decisions for Life Quality: How Safe is Safe Enough? is on the development of guidance for establishing rational standards of practice. Standards should meet the requirement of utilizing resources to achieve the maximum net overall benefit to society within society’s capacity to commit such resources. The ideas discussed within this book will be of interest to engineers; advanced undergraduate and graduate students; public health officials; and risk specialists.
  

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Contents

The Societal Capacity to Commit Resources
1
12 Resource Scarcity
3
13 Societal Capacity to Commit Resources SCCR
4
14 Background
5
15 Risk in the Context of Human Development
7
16 Principles for Managing Risk
9
17 The Life Quality Index LQI
11
18 Summary
13
63 Exposure Analysis and Assessment
88
64 Risk Assessment
90
65 Discussion
92
66 Summary
93
Optimal Design of a Flood Protection Levee
95
72 Discounting Risk and Cash Flow
97
1A Flood Control Design Example
99
75 Summary
104

References
14
Social Indicators for Managing Risk
16
211 The Human Development Index
17
22 The Life Quality Index
19
23 Rationale for Use of Life Expectancy and GDP
23
The Real GDP per Capita
27
25 The LQI as a Tool for Managing Risk
28
27 General Criterion of Acceptability
29
28 Societal Capacity to Commit Resources
30
29 Summary
33
References
34
Judging Risks Using the Life Quality Method
37
32 BenefitCost Analysis by the LQI Method
38
33 Illustrative Application
39
332 Estimation of Change in Life Expectancy
40
333 Example Calculations
41
34 Discounting Models in LQI Method
45
342 Hyperbolic Discounting Function
46
343 Quasihyperbolic Discounting Function
47
35 Summary
49
References
50
Air Quality Standards
51
42 CanadaWide Standards on Air Quality
53
422 Background to the Development of the CanadaWide Standards
54
423 Approach Used to Set Air Pollution Standards
55
424 Limitations of the CWSDC Analysis
58
43 Applying LQI to the Air Pollution Case Study
60
431 Empirical Validation
63
432 CostBenefit Analysis of Pollution Control Options
64
44 Summary
67
Nuclear Safety
69
511 Justifiable Expenditure
70
512 Utility Function for Longevity
72
513 Discounting
73
515 Illustrative Calculation
75
516 Empirical Validation
76
52 Applications to Risk of Ionizing Radiation Exposure
77
53 Application to Nuclear Safety Design Features
78
54 Conclusions
81
55 Summary
82
Port Cities with High Exposure to Flood
84
62 Data
86
Closure
106
82 Principles for Managing Risk
109
83 Conclusions
110
References
111
Appendix A Derivation of LQI
113
A2 The Utility Function
114
A3 Technical Concepts and Definitions
116
A33 Marginal Rate of Substitution
118
A34 Elasticity of Substitution
119
A4 The Role of GDP in LQI
120
A42 Measurement of GDP
121
A45 GDP as an Indicator of Welfare
122
A5 Production of GDP
123
A 53 Economics of LaborLeisure Tradeoff
126
A6 Derivation of the LQI
127
A7 Summary
129
Appendix B Discounting
131
B2 The Canadian CostBenefit Analysis Guide 2007
132
B21 Rational Approaches to Discount Rates
133
B22 Discount Rates
134
B3 BenefitCost Analysis Guide Treasury Board of Canada
136
B32 The Social Discount Rate
137
B33 The RateofTime Preference for Consumption
138
B35 The Discount Rate as a Risk Variable
139
B4 US Office of Management and Budget OMB A94 Guidelines for BenefitCost Analysis of Federal Programs
140
B42 Discount Rate Policy
141
B5 The UK Treasury Green Book
142
B53 LongTerm Discount Rates
144
B6 Discounting Risks in the Far Future
150
B62 Financing Horizon
153
B63 Equivalence Principle
154
B65 Discussion
157
B66 Conclusions
158
Calibration of the LQI
160
C2 Summary
168
References
172
The Life Table and Its Construction
173
D2 Explanation of Life Table Variables
175
D3 Explanation of the Modified Life Table Table D2
177
D5 References
186
Index
187
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