China's nation- building effort, 1927-1937 (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Hoover Press, 1971
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Contents

The Rogers mission
203
Silver and politics in 1933 and 1934
205
Implementing the silver purchase law of 1934
207
China and the depression in 1932 to 1934
208
Controversy with Washington
211
Abandonment of the free silver standard
215
Currency Reform of 1935
216
Deflation and depression 1934 and 1935
220

The Central Bank of China
27
Monetary reform
28
Communications
29
International relations
30
Summary
32
Fiscal Affairs
35
The Quest for Fiscal Stability Building Revenues
37
Status of the Customs
39
Struggle for Customs integrity
42
Gold basis for import duties
45
Tariff policy
48
Politics of high tariffs
51
Salt as a revenue source
54
Reform of the salt revenue
57
Working of the Sinoforeign Salt administration
60
Excise tax reforms
63
Direct taxes
67
Provincial and local revenues
71
the overall tax burden
72
The Quest for Fiscal Stability Expenditures Deficits and Borrowing
75
Provincial and local expenditures
78
Budgets accounts and fiscal control
80
evaluation of differing data
83
Methods and extent of borrowing
92
Domestic bond prices yields and costs of borrowing
97
Foreign bond prices and yields
98
Debt readjustment of 1932
102
After the readjustment
106
Debt consolidation of 1936
107
After the consolidation
108
Debts and the Rehabilitation of Credit
110
The Boxer Indemnity
113
Saltsecured foreign loans
115
Failure of efforts for a general settlement of debts in arrears
118
Debts to Japan
122
Piecemeal negotiations with Western creditors from 1931 to 1935
126
TientsinPukow Railway loans of 19081910
128
Hukuang Railway loan of 1911
132
The Chicago Bank loan of 1919
135
Further settlements of 19361937
138
Debt situation on the eve of war
140
Fiscal Affairs Summary and Appraisal
142
Expenditures
146
Deficit management
149
Rehabilitation of credit
153
Fiscal administration
157
Monetary Affairs
161
Silver Standard Reform or the Gold Standard?
163
Prices and their measurement
166
pros and cons
172
Pre1929 projects for currency reform
177
Kemmerer project of 1929
178
Standardization of the silver dollar and abolition of the tael
183
Silver Down and Up
188
Silver loan projects
189
China and the depression 1929 to 1932
194
Doing something for silver
201
Search for foreign cooperation
223
Planning currency reform
229
American help at last
233
Reform of November 3 1935
237
Implementing Currency Reform
239
Mobilizing nationalized silver
240
Sales of silver
241
Working of the currency reform
245
Coinage reform
252
Reform of regional currencies
254
China and gold
256
Balance of payments
257
Banking
262
Note issue and deposits
267
Rise of the Central Bank
270
Planning a Central Reserve Bank
273
Monetary Affairs Summary and Appraisal
277
Banking
282
Modernization and Development
287
Planning Policy and Organization
289
Background
290
Planning and policy
292
Organization for development
297
The Economy
299
Industry
306
Railways
314
Roads
320
Airways
322
Foreign trade
325
National income and capital formation
329
Foreign Advisory and Technical Aid
336
Financial affairs
337
Aid by the League of Nations
342
Military affairs
349
Miscellaneous foreign aid
356
Foreign Private Investment and Financial Aid
360
The China Consortium
362
The China Development Finance Corporation
363
Extent of foreign private investment 1927 and 1937
365
Foreign credits for railways and industrial development 1934 to 1937
367
Other foreign loan projects in 1937
372
Flood relief and rehabilitation in 19311932
376
American cotton and wheat loan of 1933
382
Modernization and Development Summary and Appraisal
387
The economy
388
Stagnation or growth?
395
Conclusion
403
Overall View of the NationBuilding Effort
405
National effort and the foreign role
406
Contemporary appraisals
418
The balance sheet
422
Appendixes
431
Notes
501
Bibliographic Note
527
Index
541
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