Particle beam microanalysis: fundamentals, methods and applications
Particle beam methods of microanalysis allow high lateral and vertical resolution, high sensitivity, low detection limits, and high accuracy. This book concentrates on methods which complement each other and can be routinely applied in industrial laboratories: scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron beam X-ray microanalysis, Auger electron microanalysis, and ion beam microanalysis as well as electron beam testing. The principal aim of this book is to support the analyst in his practical work. The theoretical basis is treated only to the extent required to obtain an understanding of the physical fundamentals and to allow effective use of the analytical instruments. The mode of operation of the instruments, the preparation of specimens, the evaluation of the measured signals as well as the detection limits are described in detail. A selection of practical examples drawn mainly from the field of semiconductor technology demonstrates the range of applications and the limitations of the various particle beam methods.
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Scanning electron microscopy
Transmission electron microscopy
6 other sections not shown
analysis analyzed angle annealing aperture atomic number Auger electrons backscattered Bloch waves bombardment boron Bragg angle bright bright-field capacitor cathode charge circuit cross section crystal curve density depth profiles detection detector diffraction pattern diffusion direction dislocation distribution dopant doping edge effects electric electron beam electron diffraction Electron Microscopy electron probe elements emission emitted etching excitation field film fraction GaAs grain implantation increases intensity interface ionization lattice planes layer lenses magnetic mass spectrometer material measured methods microscope mole fraction MOVPE objective lens obtained optical oxide parameters particles peak phase Phys pn-junction polysilicon primary electrons probe current probe diameter produced pulse quantitative radiation ratio reflections region Scanning Electron Scanning Electron Microscopy scattering secondary electrons semiconductor shown in Fig signal silicide silicon SIMS specimen surface spectrum sputter structure substrate thickness thin tion values voltage voltage contrast wave width X-ray X-ray microanalysis yield