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Ability grouping academic achievement behavior achievement motivation achievement situations achievement-related activities adults anagrams answer asked assess assignments attribute attribution theory avoid Bandura believe Brophy cause challenging Chapter child classmates classroom cognitive competence motivation Consequently contingent Covington curriculum DeCharms demonstrate described developed Developmental Psychology Dick Dweck Educational Psychology emotional engage environment evaluation example expectations experience external reinforcement extrinsic rewards factors failure feedback feelings of competence give given goals Hannah hard Harter high anxiety high-expectation students individuals instruction intrinsic interest intrinsic motivation lack learned helplessness locus of control low ability mastery learning math Meichenbaum ment motivational problems outcomes parents perceived perceptions poor performance practice praise punishment reading reinforcement theory responses result Rotter's Safe Sally school tasks scores self-confidence self-efficacy self-worth skill level social solve strategies success teacher test anxiety theorists tion token economy understanding usually value theory