The truth about trade: the real impact of liberalization
Is it really true that the trade agreements pursued in the World Trade Organisation and through regional negotiations are vital for eliminating world poverty and achieving a sustainable future? Or is trade liberalization the villain of the piece? Clive George's provocative book examines the evidence, exposes the myths, and presents challenging new proposals for comprehensive reform of the global trading system. Based on ten years of in-depth research into the impacts of trade agreements on sustainable development, it reveals that few of the claims made by the major players stand up to scrutiny, while many of the counter-claims lack rigour in their analysis of key issues. It cuts through the rhetoric with illuminating anecdotes from the author's experience of working with trade negotiators, to present a more realistic view of their motives and the outcomes they achieve. Each of the components of the negotiation agenda is examined in turn, to identify the most likely economic, social and environmental impacts of liberalising trade in manufactured goods, agriculture, services, investment, intellectual property rights and the other rules by which trade is governed. In some cases the rhetoric approximates to reality while in many others the negotiated outcomes do more harm than good to both development and its environmental sustainability.From its analysis of the relationships between trade, social transformation, economic growth and environmental integrity, the book concludes with proposals for how the world trade regime might be reformed to help tackle the world's most pressing problems instead of making them worse.
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A matter for negotiation
Claims and counterclaims
Climbing the development ladder
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achieved Africa agricultural aid for trade America anti-competitive practices apply areas beneﬁcial beneﬁt bigger biodiversity biofuels biological diversity Brazil cent Chapter China climate change conference costs country’s crisis deﬁning developing countries Doha agenda Doha Round domestic economic beneﬁt economists effects employment environment environmental impacts Europe Europe’s European Commission exports ﬁnal ﬁnancial services ﬁndings ﬁrms ﬁrst foreign free trade gain global high-income countries Hoekman identiﬁed impact assessment studies imports increase industrialized countries inﬂuence intellectual property rights international trade investment issues labour manufacturing measures ment neoliberal numbers OECD overall Pascal Lamy patent pollution poverty production proﬁts programme proposed protection provisions reduce reforms regulation rules rural sector SIA studies signiﬁcant Singapore Singapore issues single undertaking speciﬁc subsidies Sustainability impact assessment sustainable development tariffs tion trade barriers trade liberalization trade negotiations TRIPs UNCTAD University of Manchester World Bank World Trade Organization