Past participles from Latin to Romance
From Latin through the Romance languages, which types of past participle survived? Which older, "irregular" types disappeared and which older, "regular" types proliferated? Which new types of past participles emerged, which proved popular in standard Romance languages, and which exist in a wide range of dialects? The author explores reasons for the expansion or contraction of each type, in each area.
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Latin Past Participles
Past Participles in Eastern Romance
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2nd-conj 3rd conjugation 3rd-conj 4th conjugation 4th-conj adjectival adjectives analogy aorist arrhizotonic athematic past participles attested by-form Catalan CL p.p. conj consonant contrast Dacia Daco-Romanian derive dialects done/made Engadin Ernout and Meillet finite perfectum Friulian idem infectum stem infin infinitives innovation intervocalic irregular Ist-R Istro-Romanian Italian Italian French Catalan Late Latin lst conjugation lst-conj marker masc masc.sg metaphony metaplasm morphological Mourin nasal nasal consonant noun Occitan Old French old past participle past participles end percent perfect Portuguese prefixed pres pres.indic pret preterits reduplication reflexes regular 4th-conj regular p.p. regular past participles remade replaced reshaping rhizotonic past participles rhizotonic thematic Romance languages Romanian Romanian Italian French Sardinian semantic semilearned short-form sigmatic marking sigmatic past participles sigmatic-tautic speakers standard Italian suffix suppletive Surselvan survived syncopated tautic athematic past theme vowel tonic vowel variant