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according addition of electrolytes albumen alkali allotropic alumina amicrons appears Barus and Schneider Biltz blue Bredig Brownian movement cent Chapter Chem chemical compounds chlorid coagulation colloidal gold solutions colloidal metals colloidal silver colloidal solutions color colorless contained crystalloid solution crystals dialyzer diffract diffuse dilution dissolved Drude's Ann electrolytes fluid formation formed gelatin gold chlorid gold figures gold hydrosols gold particles Graham homogeneous hydrogel illumination individual particles insoluble investigators irreversible hydrosols jelly large number light light-cone liquid Lobry de Bruyn loidal Lottermoser metal hydrosols metal solutions metallic gold method microscopic molecular molecules motion nuclei observed obtained optical oxid pectization Picton and Linder polarized precipitate present properties protective action protective colloid purple of Cassius reaction ruby glass salts seen Siedentopf silicic acid smaller solu soluble stannic acid starch subdivision submicrons substances sulphid supersaturated suspensions temperature tion tungstic acid turbid ultraapparatus ultramicroscopic ultramicroscopic particles visible Zeitschr Zsigmondy Zunz
Page 47 - ... would suggest. Gelatine is also precipitated by carbolic acid. The hardness of the crystalloid, with its crystalline planes and angles, is replaced in the colloid by a degree of softness, with a more or less rounded outline. The water of crystallization is represented by the water of gelatination. The water in gelatinous hydrates is aptly described by M. CHEVREUL as retained by "capillary affinity," that is, by an attraction partaking both of the physical and chemical character.
Page 33 - ... characteristic quality of colloids, is their mutability. Their existence is a continued metastasis. A colloid may be compared in this respect to water, while existing liquid at a temperature under its usual freezing-point, or to a supersaturated saline solution.
Page 46 - The inquiry suggests itself whether the colloid molecule may not be constituted by the grouping together of a number of smaller crystalloid molecules, and whether the basis of colloidality may not really be this composite character of the molecule.
Page 32 - Although chemically inert in the ordinary sense, colloids possess a compensating activity of their own, arising out of their physical properties. While the rigidity of the crystalline structure shuts out external impressions, the softness of the gelatinous colloid partakes of fluidity, and enables the colloid to become a medium for liquid diffusion, like water itself.
Page 34 - It may perhaps be allowed to me to apply the convenient term dialysis to the method of separation by diffusion through a septum of gelatinous matter. The most suitable of all substances for the dialytic septum appears to be the commercial material known as vegetable parchment, or parchment-paper, which was first produced by M. Gaine, and is now successfully manufactured by Messrs. De la Rue.
Page 46 - C^HnOn, but judging from the small proportions of lime and potash which suffice to neutralize this acid, the true numbers of its formula must be several times greater. It is difficult to avoid associating the inertness of colloids with their high equivalents, particularly where the high number appears to be attained by the repetition of a smaller number.
Page 32 - Low diffusibility is not the only property which the bodies last enumerated possess in common. They are distinguished by the gelatinous character of their hydrates. Although often largely soluble in water, they are held in solution by a most feeble force.
Page 53 - The pectization of liquid silicic acid and many other liquid colloids is effected by contact with minute quantities of salts in a way which is not understood. On the other hand, the gelatinous acid may again be liquefied, and have its energy restored by contact with a very moderate amount of alkali. The latter change is gradual, 1 part of caustic soda, dissolved in 10,000 water, liquefying 200 parts of silicic acid (estimated dry), in 60 minutes at 100° C.
Page 45 - The fluid colloid becomes pectous and insoluble by contact with certain other substances, without combining with these substances, and often under the influence of time alone. The pectising substance appears to hasten merely an impending change.
Page 52 - The capacity of a mass of gelatinous silicic acid to assume alcohol, or even oleine, in the place of water of combination, without disintegration or alteration of form, may perhaps afford a clue to the penetration of the albuminous matter of membrane by fatty and other insoluble bodies, which seems to occur in the digestion of food. Still more remarkable and suggestive are the fluid compounds of silicic acid. The fluid alcohol-compound favours the possibility of the existence of a compound of the...