A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive: Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence and the Methods of Scientific Investigation : in Two Volumes (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Longmans, Green, 1865 - Evidence
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Contents

Qf the Necessity of commencing with an Analysis of Language 1 Theory of names why a necessary part of logic
17
First step in the analysis of Propositions
21
Names are names of things not of our ideas
23
Words which are not names but parts of names
26
Concrete and Abstract
29
Connotative and Nonconnotative
31
Positive and Negative
42
Relative and Absolute
44
Univocal and Equivocal
47
Categories of Aristotle
49
Ambiguity of the most general names
51
Feelings or states of consciousness
54
Feelings must be distinguished from their physical antece dents Perceptions what
56
Volitions and Actions what
58
Substance and Attribute
60
7 Body
61
Mind
67
Qualities
69
Eelations
72
Resemblance
74
Quantity
78
All attributes of bodies are grounded on states of con sciousness
79
So also all attributes of mind
80
Recapitulation
81
Nature and office of the copula
85
Affirmative and Negative propositions
87
Simple and Complex
89
Universal Particular and Singular
93
Doctrine that a proposition is the expression of a relation between two ideas
96
Doctrine that it is the expression of a relation between the meanings of two names
99
Doctrine that it consists in referring something to or ex cluding something from a class
103
What it really is
107
It asserts or denies a sequence a coexistence a simple existence a causation
116
Propositions of which the terms are abstract
117
Essential and Accidental propositions
119
All essential propositions are identical propositions
123
Individuals hare no essences
125
Real propositions how distinguished from verbal
126
Two modes of representing the import of a Heal proposition
128
Classification how connected with Naming
130
The Predicables what 132
132
Kinds have a real existence in nature
135
Differentia
140
Differentiae for general purposes and differentia for special or technical purposes
142
Proprium
145
Accidens
147
A definition what
149
Every name can be defined whose meaning is susceptible of analysis
151
Complete how distinguished from incomplete definitions
153
even when such things do not in reality exist
166
Definitions though of names only must be grounded on knowledge of the corresponding Things
168
Of the Functions and Logical Value of the Syllogism 1 Is the syllogism apetitio principiif
204
Insufficiency of the common theory
205
All inference is from particulars to particulars
207
General propositions are a record of such inferences and the rules of the syllogism are rules for the interpretation of the record
217
The syllogism not the type of reasoning but a test of it
220
The true type what
224
Relation between Induction and Deduction
228
Objections answered
229
Of Formal Logic and its relation to the Logic of Truth
233
Of Trains qf Reasoning and Deductive Sciences
235
For what purpose trains of reasoning exist
236
from particulars to particulars through marks of marks
239
Why there are deductive sciences
242
Why other sciences still remain experimental
246
Experimental sciences may become deductive by the pro gress of experiment
248
In what manner this usually takes place
249
the sense of necessarily following from hypotheses
253
The same Subject continued
284
Examination of some Opinions opposed
296
Preliminary Observations on Induction in general
315
Of Inductions improperly so called
321
Axiom of the uniformity of the course of nature
343
Of Laws of Nature
353
Of the Law of Universal Causation
362
Two modes of the conjunct action of causes the mechani
407
Of Observation and Experiment
416
Of the Four Methods of Experimental Inquiry pies 1 Method of Agreement
427
Method of Difference
430
Mutual relation of these two methods
431
Joint Method of Agreement and Difference
437
Method of Residues
438
Method of Concomitant Variations
443
Limitations of this last method
445
Liehigs theory of metallic poisons
451
Theory of induced electricity
458
Dr Wells theory of dew
459
Dr BrownS6quards theory of cadaveric rigidity
467
Examples of the Method of Residues
477
Of Plurality of Causes and of the Intermixture of Effects
484
One effect may have several causes
486
Plurality of Causes how ascertained
489
Concurrence of Causes which do not compound their effects
491
Difficulties of the investigation when causes compound their effects
498
Three modes of investigating the laws of complex effects
501
The method of simple observation inapplicable
502
The purely experimental method inapplicable
503
Of the Deductive Method 1 First stage ascertainment of the laws of the separate causes by direct induction
509
Second stage ratiocination from the simple laws of the complex cases
514
Third stage verification by specific experience
516
Explanation defined
520
Miscellaneous Examples of the Explanation
529

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 430 - If two or more instances of the phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in common, the circumstance in which alone all the instances agree is the cause (or effect) of the given phenomenon.
Page 431 - If an instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and an instance in which it does not occur, have every circumstance in common save one, that one occurring only in the former; the circumstance in which alone the two instances differ is the effect, or the cause, or an indispensable part of the cause, of the phenomenon.
Page 439 - Subduct from any phenomenon such part as is known by previous inductions to be the effect of certain antecedents, and the residue of the phenomenon is the effect of the remaining antecedents.
Page 149 - The simplest and most correct notion of a Definition is, a proposition declaratory of the meaning of a word; namely, either the meaning which it bears in common acceptation, or that which the speaker or writer, for the particular purposes of his discourse, intends to annex to it.
Page 352 - Why is a single instance, in some cases, sufficient for a complete induction ; while in others, myriads of concurring instances, without a single exception known or presumed, go such a very little way towards establishing a universal proposition ? Whoever can answer this question, knows more of the philosophy of logic than the wisest of the ancients, and has solved the problem of induction.
Page 479 - The business of Inductive Logic is to provide rules and models (such as the Syllogism and its rules are for ratiocination) to which if inductive arguments conform, those arguments are conclusive, and not otherwise.
Page 31 - A connotative term is one which denotes a subject, and implies an attribute. By a subject is here meant anything which possesses attributes. Thus John, or London, or England, are names which signify a subject only.
Page 366 - To certain facts, certain facts always do, and, as we believe, will continue to, succeed. The invariable antecedent is termed the cause; the invariable consequent, the effect. And the universality of the law of causation consists in this, that every consequent is connected in this manner with some particular antecedent, or set of antecedents. Let the fact be what it may, if it has begun to exist, it was preceded by some fact or facts, with which it is invariably connected.
Page 23 - names ordered in speech (as is defined) are signs of our conceptions, it is manifest they are not signs of the things themselves ; for that the sound of this word stone should be the sign of a stone, cannot be understood in any sense but this, that he that hears it collects that he that pronounces it thinks of a stone.
Page 205 - When we say, All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore Socrates is mortal ; it is unanswerably urged by the adversaries of the syllogistic theory, that the proposition, Socrates is mortal, is presupposed in the more general assumption, All men are mortal...

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