The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750-1900

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Courier Dover Publications, 1999 - Body, Mind & Spirit - 680 pages
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"There isn't an uninteresting page in it. It is a masterly review of an intriguing subject, erudite and entertaining, clear and all-encompassing reading for anyone interested in 'one of the most wondrous and noble questions in nature' ― does extraterrestrial life exist?" ― New Scientist. Are we alone in the universe? Are there other beings on other worlds who gaze into the night sky and try to imagine us, as we try to imagine them? Those questions have been debated since antiquity, but it was during the Enlightenment that they particularly began to engage the interest of prominent scientists and thinkers. In this fascinating volume, Professor Michael Crowe offers the first in-depth study in English of the international debate that developed between 1750 and 1900 concerning the existence of extraterrestrial life, a problem that engaged an extraordinary variety of Western thinkers across the spectrum of intellectual endeavor. Astronomers such as Herschel, Bode, Lalande, and Flammarion all weighed in, along with French philosophers Rousseau and Voltaire, American patriot Thomas Paine, Scots churchman Thomas Chalmers, and a host of others. Professor Crowe gives them all their say, as they address the question as a point of science, as a problem of philosophy, as well as a religious issue. The book ends with the "discovery" by Schiaparelli of the canals of Mars, the expansion of the canal theory by the American astronomer Percival Lowell, and the culmination of the canal controversy with the demonstration of its illusory nature. "Crowe's book is lucid and rich in historical detail. His analysis is so fascinating and his comments on the contemporary debate so pertinent that The Extraterrestrial Life Debate can be recommended for the thoughtful reader without reservation. While a model of scholarly analysis, it has the unusual virtue of reading with the excitement of high adventure." ― Sky & Telescope.
  

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Contents

before 1750
1
The plurality of worlds debate before 1750 a background survey
3
From 1750 to 1800
39
Astronomers and extraterrestrials
41
Extraterrestrials and the Enlightenment
81
From 1800 to 1860
165
The intensification of the plurality of worlds debate after 1800
167
The decades before Whewell
216
William Whewell pluralism questioned
265
The Whewell debate pluralism defended
300
From 1860 to 1900
357
New approaches to an ancient question
359
Religious and scientific discussions
407
The battle over the planet of war
480
Some conclusions concerning the unconcluded debate
547
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