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adventitious roots allspice approximately aromatic bark berries black pepper botanical branches capsules cardamom carried cent Central African Republic Cinnamomum cinnamon cloves cm in diameter cm long cm wide compounds cultivation cuttings damage disease dried essential oil essential oil content eugenol extracted fertiliser flavour fragrans fruits fungicidal ginger ginger and turmeric grafting green Grenada growing grown growth harvesting herbicides India Indonesia Inflorescence insects irrigation Kampuchea Kerala kg/ha Lamiaceae layer leaves living supports mace Madagascar manure Melegueta pepper method mixed crop months mulching nematodes non-living supports nursery nutmeg oleoresin palms pepper and vanilla pepper plant peppercorns petiolated Piperine plantations pods pollination preparation production propagation pruning rainfall Reunion rhizomes ripe Root system seeds shade soil species studied spice spice plants spikes Sri Lanka stamens stems sugar cane t/ha Table techniques terpenes tonnes/hectare tree tropical turmeric Umbelliferae vanilla vanilla plants vanillin various vegetable vine weeding white pepper yield Zanzibar Zingiberaceae