The Clinical Anatomy of Coronary Arteries: 3 Tables

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Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 27, 2002 - Medical - 115 pages
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Considerable advances have been made in cardiology during the last few decades. In particular, there has been great progress in the field of coronary angiography both when combined with, and without, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic reso nance (MR) imaging. These techniques of modern imaging allow the cardiologist and coronary surgeon to study every cardiac structure in detail, both two- and three-di mensionally and from either side, to analyze the movements of the heart and valves, and to observe myocardial circulation and even myocardial metabolic processes. However, coronary heart disease, a multifactorial illness of the coronary vessels, still remains the most common cause of death in developed countries. In addition to the large group of patients suffering from coronary heart disease, there is a smaller group of children and adults who are in need of open heart surgery and,most frequently,valve surgery.Avery small number of individuals suffering from Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome still await competent surgical intervention. These three groups of patients have in common that, for them, meticulous preop erative diagnostics and preparation for surgery are urgently required. Any open heart surgeon who carri es out procedures in the coronary or interventricular grooves or on the atrial walls of the heart must take the normal and anomalous origins,courses, and terminations of cardiac vessels into consideration. Therefore, with the availability of precise anatomical and physiological data,operation time will be shortened, operative risks will diminish, and the safety of the operation for the patient will be greater.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
11 Aims of the Study
2
The Significance of the Proper Vessels of the Human Heart in Statistics and Diagnostics
5
21 Angiography
6
22 MR Imaging
7
25 Conventional and Ultrafast Computed Tomography CardioCT
8
Nomenclature
9
32 Abbreviations
12
451 The Arterial Supply of the Sinuatrial Node
56
452 Arterial Supply of the Interatrial and Internodal Pathways
58
454 Arterial Supply of the Common AV Bundle and Proximal Right and Left Bundle
60
455 The Extracardiac Noncoronary Arteries
61
46 Arterial Supply of the Interventricular Septum
64
462 The Left Superior Septal Branch or First Anterior Septal Branch
69
464 The Right Superior Septal Branch
70
466 Arterial Supply of the Papillary Muscles
71

33 Commonly Used Unofficial or Alternative Terms and Synonyms
13
Results and Discussion
15
411 The Right Coronary Artery
18
413 Further Ramification of the RCA
19
414 The Posterior Interventricular Artery
20
416 The Left Coronary Artery
21
417 The Anterior Interventricular Artery
27
418 The Median Intermedian Branch
28
42 Peculiarities of the Origin of Coronary Arteries
29
422 The Lengths and Diameters of the Major Coronary Arteries
32
423 ThreeDimensional Orientation of the Coronary Stems Angles of Origin of the LCA and RCA and Angle of Division of the LCA
33
424 Variable and Anomalous Coronary Ostia and Courses
34
A Single Ostium for a Single Coronary Artery in the Left or Right Aortic Sinus
35
426 Greater Number of Ostia in the Left and Right Aortic Sinuses
38
427 Aberrant or Ectopic Superior Origin High TakeOff of a Coronary Artery
41
428 Deep Inferior Origin Low TakeOff of a Coronary Artery
43
43 Coronary Dominance or Preponderance
45
431 Balanced or Intermediate Type of Coronary Distribution
47
432 Dominant Right Coronary Artery
48
44 Intramural Intramyocardial and Intraluminal Courses of the Coronary Arteries
52
441 Intramural Courses of Ventricular Branches
53
443 Subendocardial Intraluminal or Intracavitary Courses
55
47 Blood Supply to Coronary Arteries Vasa Vasorum
72
481 Anastomoses in the Ventricular Walls
75
484 Intracoronary Homocoronary Anastomoses
76
486 Noncoronary Extracardiac Anastomoses to Atrial Arteries
77
487 The Significance and Evaluation of Anatomically or Angiographically Demonstrated Anastomoses and Collaterals
78
488 Collaterals in Patients with Ostial and Coronary Spasm
80
492 Anomalous Coronary Arteries with Pulmonary Trunk Origin
81
4102 AgeRelated Nonatheromatous Calcifications in the Coronary Arteries
82
4104 Coronary Calcifications in Heart Specimens of Subjects from the Dissection Room
83
4106 Multiple Coronary Aneurysmata
87
Sites of Aortic Anastomoses
88
Concluding Remarks
89
512 Right Ventricular Branches of the AIA
90
514 Unusual Short Stem of the LCA
91
517 Multiple Ostia in the Aortic Sinuses
92
5111 Interventricular and Coronary Sulci Without an Epimural Artery
93
5113 Coronary Artery Calcification
94
5114 Evaluation and Interpretation
95
Summary
97
References
99
Subject Index
113
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