The International Relations of the Chinese Empire, Volume 1 (Google eBook)

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Longmans, Green, and Company, 1910 - China - 727 pages
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Contents

The district organisation
13
The High Commissioner
15
The unofficial delegated functions
16
The Hien or Magistrate
17
judicial
18
23 Importance of customary law
19
The village tipao
20
Organisation of the town
21
The TartarGeneral
22
Chinese military organisation
23
CHAPTER II
25
The land tax
30
Method of collection
31
Tribute in kind
32
The Customs
34
The Customs revenue
35
The salt gabelle
36
The salt revenue
37
Miscellaneous taxes
38
The expenditure of the empire
39
CHAPTER III
41
TABLE OF CONTENTS xi
63
abolition of E I C monopoly 1834
87
Apprehension in minds of Chinese
88
Table A Statistics of American Trade 18181833
89
Table B Statistics of British Trade 18181833 9091
90
Combined British and American Trade 18181833
92
Notes on Trade Statistics
93
CHAPTER V
94
Death ship Royal George 1810
104
The affair of H M S Topaze 1821
105
False charge ship Earl of Balearras 1824
106
Lascar sellaccused at Macao 1833
107
Captain of ship Winchelsea assaulted 1821
108
Chinese trials characterised as barbarous
109
English submit but criticise Chinese classification of homicide English law very close but less merciful in theory
110
Chinese maxim in dealing with foreigners
111
Corruption of Chinese magistracy
112
The Chinese doctrine of responsibility
114
The English attitude in trials for homicide
115
The Chinese bound by their doctrine of responsibility
116
English and Chinese views divergent
117
CHAPTER VI
118
Foreign Secretary
120
Comment on the instructions
121
Attempt to deliver Lord Napiers letter July 26th
122
Action of Chinese authorities on Lord Napiers arrival
124
Chinese adherence to established precedent
125
Viceroy holds Hong merchants personally responsible July 3031
127
28thSept 3rd
135
Crisis in the situation
136
Illness of Lord Napier and return to Macao Sept 21st26th frigates leave river Sept 21st trade reopened Sept 29th death of Lord Napier Oct 11th
137
Considerations on the international situation
138
Ineffective action of the British government
139
Difficult position of Lord Napier his policy consistent
141
Viceroys policy also consistent from Chinese standpoint
142
Lord Napier and the viceroy each represented the national view
144
CHAPTER VII
145
Canton
165
Expansion of commerce under the free trade
168
Position of the English under the free trade
169
CHAPTER VIII
170
Viceroy rejects protest and maintains his right to execute Chinese
171
Memorial of Hsu Naitsi proposing legalisation of opium trade June 1836
185
Report of Cohong on proposed legalisation
187
Memorial of Chutsun denouncing opium and urging maintenance of prohibition Oct 1836
188
Memorial of Hsiikiu urging that foreigners be compelled to observe the laws Oct 1836
189
Imperial edicts on these memorials
190
Expectation that trade would be legalised
191
Expulsion of nine foreign merchants ordered Nov 23rd 1836
192
Superintendent commanded to order opium ships away June Sept 1837
193
Captain Elliot disclaims responsibility
194
Warning of embargo on trade Nov Dec 1837
195
Seizure of opium at factories Deo 3rd 1838 Mr Innes ordered to leave Mr Talbot ordered to leave but exonerated trade stopped
196
Attempted strangulation of criminal in front of factories and resulting riot Dec 12th
197
Chinese official action undor prohibition
205
CHAPTER IX
212
Commissioner Lin places further restraints on trade June 23rd 235
213
Undertakes to surrender 20283 chests March 28th
225
Different aims of Chinese and foreign statesmen
253
CHAPTER X
255
Chapu taken May 18th heavy loss to Manchu garrison 294
256
260
272
CHAPTER XI
298
Draft treaty proposed by Lord Palmerston
299
The points settled by the first treaties
301
5 Treaty ports
302
6 Consuls
303
Money indemnities
304
Abolition of monopoly
307
Tariff
308
National equality
309
11 Mostfavourednation treatment
310
12 Relations with the Customs
311
Commercial relations between merchants
312
Movements of warships
313
Inland transit
314
Evacuation of places held in pledge
315
The opium question left unsettled
316
Settlement not fully accepted by China
317
CHAPTER XII
319
Hongkong
335
Character of Kiying his later fortunes
336
Portuguese declare Macao a free port and close Hoppos offices March 5th 1849
337
Chinese resentment at act
338
Chinese merchants leave Macao sequestration of their property threatened April 25th
339
Governor Amaral assassinated Aug 22nd foreign representa tives protest
340
Sovereignty of Macao lost to China
341
Regulation of admission of Chinese to foreign settlements
353
Conditions of life at Shanghai
356
v14 Opium tea silk
358
Ningpo opened failure of trade
359
Foochow opened slow development tea
360
Entrance to Fooohow city
361
Amoy opened the coolie trade
362
Canton as a treaty port
363
Table F Export of tea and silk 18431860
366
CHAPTER XIV
367
April 6th 1849
388
Kiyings position weakened
389
Minor outrages MayNov 1847 prompt redress
390
Englishmen assaulted at Tsingpu Shanghai March 8th 1848
391
Opinion of British government
393
Minor incidents AprilNov 1848
394
Entry to city of Canton resisted by people
395
Right temporarily abandoned under protest
397
Lord Palmerston warns Chinese of consequences
398
CHAPTER XV
400
High Commissioner 18481854
411
Efforts of British plenipotentiary to obtain interview 18541855
412
First demands for revision of treaties 1854
414
Efforts of envoys of three powers at Canton and Shanghai
415
American proposals for revision 1856
416
Sir J Bowrings opinion and action
417
Unsuccessful result of Dr Parkers mission
418
CHAPTER XVI
419
263
427
Chinese soldiers commit piracy on steamer Thistle Dec 30th
435
Hostilities at Canton neutrality elsewhere
436
China and England had drifted into war
437
TABLE OF CONTENTS Xxi
438
CHAPTER XVIII
457
French interests at Shanghai
461
Chinese flock to foreign settlements jurisdiction assumed by consuls
462
Consuls refuse to register servants of foreigners
464
Exports ot tea and silk increase
466
Large importations of silver to balance trade
467
Bank exchanges disorganised
469
Currency in international trade changed from Carolus dollar to Shanghai tael spring 1857
471
CHAPTER XIX
472
Value of the trade
474
Chinese products exported
475
Trade at Kuldja and Tarbagatai regulated by convention of Kuldja 1851
476
The Amur made the boundary treaty of Aigun 1858
477
CHAPTER XX
479
CHAPTER XXI
489
CHAPTER XXII
512
267
513
Chinese
535
Concession by Lord Elgin
536
Lord Elgins voyage up the Yangtze Nov Dec 1858
537
Departure of foreign envoys
538
CHAPTER XXIII
539
Method of distribution
542
Progressive increase in importation
543
Policy of British government 18401858
544
Proposals by Sir H Pottinger 546
547
Policy of Chinese government Reissue of antiopium edict 1850 648
549
Antiopium sentiment grows in England Lord Shaftesburys memorial Aug 1855
550
American antiopium sentiment
551
Mr Reeds instructions adverse to opium his views changed supports Lord Elgin for legalisation 1858
552
Mr Reeds change of attitude unjustifiable
553
Settlement of opium question Nov 6th 1858
554
Table G Opium 18401860 656
556
CHAPTER XXIV
557
National status
559
Diplomatic relations
561
Hongkong
562
Monopolies
563
Acts of violence
564
Missions
565
Tariff of duties
566
goods
567
Coasting trade
568
Transit dues
569
Mostfavourednation clause
570
CHAPTER XXV
571
Mr Bruces instructions
574
Mr Bruce and M de Bourboulon refuse to open negotiations at Shanghai with Mr Ward proceed to Taku June 20th
575
Admiral Hope asks passage for ministers refused June 20th
576
British and French ministers resolved to force passage Juno 21st American minister referred to Peitang June 24th
577
Operations to force passage repulsed with heavy loss June 25th
578
Blood is thicker than water
579
Mr Wards reception in Peking 679
580
Action of Russian American and French envoys
582
Envoys return to Shanghai and request instructions
584
Instructions for Mr Bruce
585
Ultimatum sent to Peking March 8th 1860 and rejected
586
CHAPTER XXVI
588
Capture of Taku forte Aug 21st
593
APPENDIX
621
APPENDIX C
630
Same to same Any incomplete settlement by Captain C
631
APPENDIX
641
APPENDIX
647
APPENDIX
655
APPENDIX M
662
Same to same Payments as compensation to be made through
664
APPENDIX
670
APPENDIX
679
APPENDIX V
687
Imperial Rescript granting toleration to Christianity
691
INDEX
699
268
700
269
701

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