Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification, Second Edition (Google eBook)

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Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 3, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 400 pages
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Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification, Second Edition covers the essentials of solidification science of metals and alloys at macro- and micro-length scales at cooling rates specific to commercial castings and rapid solidification processing. The mathematical fundamentals necessary to build a working knowledge in the field, specifically partial differential equations and numerical analysis, are introduced. Each topic begins with the description of the underlying physics, followed by the mathematics required to build analytical and numerical models. Wherever possible, a detailed description of the architecture of the numerical model is provided, followed by examples of models built on the Excel spreadsheet. Features of this new edition include:Expanded sections on peritectic solidification and shrinkage porosity mechanisms and modeling,A new chapter addressing rapid solidification and bulk metallic glasses,Additional solved problems,Revised and simplified derivations of several models.Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification, Second Edition will prove useful to senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as to industrial researchers that work in the field of solidification in general and casting modeling in particular. The detailed coverage of casting defects will also make it useful to industrial practitioners of metal casting.
  

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Contents

Lengthscale in solidification analysis
1
References
4
Equilibrium and no equilibrium during solidification
5
22 The undercooling requirement
6
23 Curvature undercooling
9
24 Thermal undercooling
11
25 Constitutional undercooling
12
26 Pressure undercooling
15
822 Thermal diffusion controlled growth
163
823 Solutal thermal and capillary controlled growth
164
824 Interface anisotropy and the dendrite tip selection parameter
171
825 Effect of fluid flow on dendrite tip velocity
172
826 Multicomponent alloys
174
83 Dendritic array models
175
84 Dendritic arm spacing and coarsening
177
842 Secondary arm spacing
179

28 Departure from equilibrium
17
281 Local interface equilibrium
19
282 Interface nonequilibrium
20
29 Applications
23
Macroscale Phenomenageneral equations
25
32 Introduction to diffusive transport
29
322 The differential equation for macroscopic heat transport
30
References
31
Macromass transport
32
411 Equilibrium solidification
36
412 No diffusion in solid complete diffusion in liquid the GulliverScheil model
38
413 No diffusion in solid limited diffusion in liquid
39
414 Limited diffusion in solid complete diffusion in liquid
41
415 Limited diffusion in solid and liquid
44
417 Zone melting
47
42 Fluid dynamics during mold filling
49
423 Gating systems for castings
51
43 Fluid dynamics during solidification
54
431 Shrinkage flow
55
433 Surface tension driven Marangoni convection
58
44 Macrosegregation
60
441 Fluid flow controlled segregation
61
442 Fluid flow solute diffusion controlled segregation
62
45 Fluid dynamics during casting solidification macroshrinkage formation
64
451 Metal shrinkage and feeding
65
452 Shrinkage defects
68
46 Applications
69
References
74
Macroenergy transport
75
51 Governing equation for energy transport
76
52 Boundary conditions
77
Analytical solutions for steadystate solidification of castings
79
54 Analytical solutions for nonsteadystate solidification of castings
81
541 Resistance in the mold
84
542 Resistance at the moldsolid interface
86
543 The heat transfer coefficient
89
544 Resistance in the solid
91
55 Applications
93
References
96
Numerical Macromodeling of Solidification
97
611 The Enthalpy Method
98
612 The Specific Heat Method
99
62 Discretization of governing equations
100
622 The Finite Difference Method implicit formulation
105
624 Controlvolume formulation
106
63 Solution of the discretized equations
107
65 Macroshrinkage modeling
111
651 Thermal models
112
652 Thermalvolume calculation models
114
653 Thermalfluid flow models
115
66 Applications of macromodeling of solidification
118
67 Applications
121
References
125
Microscale Phenomena and interface dynamics
127
71 Nucleation
128
711 Heterogeneous nucleation models
131
712 Dynamic nucleation models
135
73 Interface stability
142
731 Thermal instability
143
732 Solutal instability
144
733 Thermal solutal and surface energy driven morphological instability
148
73 4 Influence of convection on interface stability
153
74 Applications
154
References
155
Cellular and dendritic growth
157
82 Analytical tip velocity models
160
85 The columartoequiaxed transition
183
86 Applications
188
References
193
Eutectic solidification
195
92 Cooperative Eutectics
197
921 Models for regular eutectic growth
199
922 Models for irregular eutectic growth
205
923 The unified eutectic growth model
207
93 Divorced eutectics
211
94 Interface stability of eutectics
214
95 Equiaxed eutectic grain growth
218
96 Solidification of Cast Iron
219
962 Crystallization of graphite from the liquid
222
963 Eutectic Solidification
226
964 The graytowhite structural transition
231
97 Solidification of aluminumsilicon alloys
233
98 Applications
240
References
244
Peritectic solidification
247
102 Peritectics microstructures and phase selection
249
103 Mechanism of peritectic solidification
254
1031 The rate of the peritectic reaction
255
1032 The rate of the peritectic transformation
257
1033 Growth of banded layered peritectic structure
259
104 Applications
261
References
262
Monotectic solidification
265
111 Classification of monotectics
266
References
270
Microstructures obtained through rapid solidification
271
121 Rapidly solidified crystalline alloys
272
122 Metallic glasses
276
References
280
Solidification in the presence of a third phase
282
1311 Particle interaction with a planar interface
285
1312 Material properties models
287
1313 Kinetic models
288
1314 Mechanism of engulfment planar SL interface
300
1315 Particle interaction with a cellulardendritic interface
301
132 Shrinkage porosity
303
1322 Analytical models including nucleation and growth of gas pores
310
1323 Analysis of shrinkage porosity models and defect prevention
312
References
313
Numerical micromodeling of solidification
317
141 Deterministic models
318
1412 Coupling of MT and TK codes
322
1413 Models for dendritic microsctructures
323
1414 Microporosity models
333
142 Stochastic models
341
1421 MonteCarlo models
342
1422 Cellular automaton models
346
143 Phase field models
355
References
358
Atomic scale phenomena Nucelation and growth
361
1511 Steadystate nucleation homogeneous nucleation
362
1512 Steadystate nucleation Heterogeneous Nucleation
368
1513 Timedependent transient nucleation
373
152 Growth Kinetics
374
1522 Continuous growth
377
1523 Lateral growth
378
153 Applications
379
References
382
Appendix A
383
Appendix B
385
Appendix C
391
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