Logic: in three books, of thought, of investigation, and of knowledge (Google eBook)

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Clarendon Press, 1888 - Logic
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Contents

Logical distinguished from Psychological enquiries
10
Applied logic
11
Knowledge
12
CHAPTER I
13
Conversion of impressions into ideas the first work of thought 2 This is effected by the logical act of naming 3 Which may be called an act of objecti...
17
Whether the phenomenon C is or only contains the cause
18
Inductive methods are based on results of deductive Logic
22
Ideas impart no motion criticised importance of Judg ments 218
23
13
28
14
30
16
32
17
33
Logic is not concerned with the origin of these ideas or with
34
Relation of thought to its linguistic expression 7 The other parts of speech Prepositions and conjunctions 8 Judgment not rightly treated in pure logic ...
37
Comparison of different instances and observation of the same
40
This does not contradict bnt confirms the previous repre sentation of the concept as determining the connexion of its marks 186
45
Universals not necessarily concepts they may be general
46
Inverse ratio of content and extent how far true or important
51
It does not mean the identity of the subject and predicate 75
52
Conception itself involves questions which also lead to judg
57
CHAPTER VIII
59
Nor by its quality
63
A thing is the result according to universal laws of the sum of its conditions 187
66
Science not content with discovering a mere connexion
67
The only true problematic modality is expressed by particular
70
Incompatibility of contrary and compatibility of disparate
73
Nor by reference to the metaphysical relation of substance
78
A law always transcends the given being an extension
79
The law which prima facie best fits in with observed facts
85
But in that case they are not judgments at all in the real sense
86
The principle of identity alone is no source of knowledge
93
Rules for framing of hypotheses not to be laid down before
94
Further determination of the predicate in the disjunctive
99
An hypothesis must limit itself to asserting what is possible
101
predicates
103
The disjunctive judgment leads on to inference
105
Appendix on immediate inferences 75 Inference ad subalternatam
106
Ad subalternantem
107
Ad contradictoriam 78 Ad contrariam and ad subcontrariam 79 Inference by conversion 80 Conversion of universal judgments 81 Conversion of par...
108
THE THEORY OF INFERENCE AND THE SYSTEMATIC FORMS Preliminary remarks upon the Aristotelian doctrine of Syllogism 83 Formation o...
114
General conditions of valid inference in them
115
Special conditions in each figure The first figure
116
The second figure
117
The third figure when both premises are affirmative
118
The third figure when both premises are negative
119
The fourth figure is superfluous
121
Reduction of the other figures to the first
122
Syllogisms with hypothetical premises involve no new principle
123
Difference of the relation between reason and consequence from that between cause and effect
125
Syllogisms with disjunctive copulative or remotive premises
126
Chains of inference
127
A Syllogistic inferences inference by subsumption inference by induction inference by analogy 97 The Aristotelian or subsumptive syllogisms merel...
128
Such inference by subsumption involves a double circle
129
Success of attempts made to test by experiment the calculus
133
287 Use of the calculus in cases where constant and variable
139
B Mathematical inferences inference by substitution inference
140
This view dominates modern science which explains in con
145
Inference by substitution is only strictly applicable to pure
146
Conditions presupposed by a logical treatment of the problem
148
Inference by proportion thus leads to the idea of constitutive
154
Concept not a mere sum of marks but a sum connected
157
trast with ancient which classifies Mechanical character of the former 188
160
Artificial or combinatory classification
163
Which naturally connect with the notions of active tendency
169
To deal with disparate marks we must go on to classifi
175
Scepticism presupposes Truth and Knowledge
176
But each genus may itself have its standard of perfection in
177
This doubt involves the assumption of a world of things
182
Error in we only know phenomena
198
BOOK II
199
CHAPTER I
202
Ideas how communicable 155 Poetry and rhetoric 156 Uncertainty of communication
203
Possible knowledge of Ideas apart from question of Things
204
Explanation by abstraction
205
Confusion of Existence and Validity in case of the Ideas
210
This the only method for simple ideas 159 Explanation by construction Description 1601 Description and definition 162 Nominal and real definitions
213
Three faults to avoid 164 Elegance and brevity
216
Evil of superfluity 166 Popular definitions 167 Genetic definition
222
Judging of knowledge by our notions of its origin an illusion
223
OF THE LIMITATION OF CONCEPTIONS
225
Attempt to find a startingpoint for knowledge Cogito ergo sum
226
Innate Ideas but are they true?
229
Relations between the members of these groups Tastes
231
Nature of mind is contributory in all elements of knowledge
232
327 Both in simple Perception and in such ideas as that of causal connexion
234
External reality must be criticised on ground of knowledge
236
Illustrations from practical life
237
Universality and Necessity as marks of a priori knowledge
239
Universal validity not derivable from repeated perceptions alone
241
The raw matter of Inductions consists not of passive
242
And though there be a term in the series that satisfies both
243
Use of psychological analysis in establishing first principles
246
Even modern Psychology hardly helps Logic
248
CHAPTER III
249
Thought must have some Real significance
252
Comparison and distinction as acts resulting in Relations
254
Numbers and things
255
Thought is symbolic and discursive
256
How can a relation of ideas be objective
259
Only as independent of individual mind The case of Things
260
A universal cannot be realised but has objective validity
264
Nominalism and Realism confuse Existence and Validity
267
Facts as they appear are not only relative to one another
268
Conception not akin to object in structure but in net result
270
The scheme of Leibnitz
271
Degrees of subjectivity in kinds of Judgment
273
Subjective character of Syllogism and Induction
276
Note on the Logical Calculus
277
In view of the complexity of things a principle of
279
The world of Knowledge and the world of Things
283
And 3 synthetic judgments a priori as basis of knowledge
294
propositions
299
And by his geometrical instance
303
The end of definition is the conception 202
304
203
306
204
307
205
308
206
309
207
312
209
315
Gradual formation of pure ideas of Motion and Mass
316
Ideas in what sense eternal and independent of things 21
318
213
321
214
322
In higher Mechanics Proof is one thing and the Ratio legis
323
216
328
A synthetic yet necessary development the supreme goal
329
218
333
219
334
220
336
222
338
Illustrations from Geometry
355
Difficulty of analysis
364
Logic Vol I
369
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Page 79 - ... different, is a relation quite impracticable in thought ; by means of this copula, the simple ' is ' of the categorical judgment, two different contents cannot be connected at all ; they must either fall entirely within one another, or they must remain entirely separate, and the impossible judgment, 'S is P,' resolves itself into the three others, ' S is S," P is P,'
Page 17 - ... when it has thus created a number of such substantial entities with their adjuncts, places them in some kind of relation to each other, so as to constitute a system. And, as a result of all these processes, the world of perceptions comes to be conceived as a world in which there are " things as fixed points, which serve to support a number of dependent properties, and are connected together by the changing play of events.
Page 100 - Edition 17, basing itself upon the fundamental principle of hierarchical classification that what is true of the whole is true also of the parts...
Page 11 - ... universal law for the arrangement of a manifold material is to be discovered. Applied logic is concerned with those methods of investigation which obviate these defects. It considers hindrances and the devices by which they may be overcome; and it must therefore sacrifice the love of systematization to considerations of utility and select what the experience of science has so far shown to be important and fruitful.
Page 9 - Only a mind which stood at the centre of this real world, not outside individual things, but penetrating them with its presence, could command such a view of reality as left nothing to look for, and was therefore the perfect image of it in its own being and activity.
Page 175 - ... computation. This method will show us how, by increase or decrease of qualities, an object tends to pass from one class to another; 1 Logic, § 131. and it enables us to fix upon that species as the most perfect example of the type whose essential marks are, at their greatest quantities, in equilibrium. "We always regard as the typical and most expressive examples of each genus those species in which all the marks are at the highest value which the combination prescribed by the genus allows.
Page 297 - But if inquiry were made what the "some metals " are, the answer would certainly be " Metal which is potassium." Hence Aristotle's conclusion simply leaves out some of the information afforded in the premises ; it even leaves us open to interpret the some metals in a wider sense than we are warranted in doing. From these distinct defects of the old...
Page 293 - If the property B be present in one of the productions, either the properties A, C, and D, are all absent, or some one alone of them is absent. And conversely, if they are all absent it may be concluded that the property A is present (7). 2nd. If A and C are both present or both absent, D will be absent, quite independently of the presence or absence of B (8) and (9).
Page 74 - ... expressions of this sort one after another, he does not indeed deliberately say that the indefinite pronoun means the same in all these cases. But he would certainly, if he understood himself rightly, give this answer rather than the former. This ' It ' is, in fact, thought of as the common subject ...it indicates the all-embracing thought of reality, which takes now one shape, now another2." Sigwart regards this interpretation as too 'artificial*,' though it does not seem in the end to differ...
Page 9 - But the human mind, with which alone we are here concerned, does not thus stand at the centre of things, but has a modest position somewhere in the extreme ramifications of reality. Compelled, as it is, to collect its knowledge piecemeal by experiences which relate immediately to only a small fragment of the whole, and thence to advance cautiously to the apprehension of what lies beyond its horizon, it has probably to make a number of circuits, which are immaterial to the truth it is seeking, but...

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Lotze's System of Philosophy: Logic - Of
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