El Libertador: Writings of Simón Bolívar
General Simï¿½n Bolï¿½var (1783-1830), called El Liberator, and sometimes the "George Washington" of Latin America, was the leading hero of the Latin American independence movement. His victories over Spain won independence for Bolivia, Panama, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Bolï¿½var became Columbia's first president in 1819. In 1822, he became dictator of Peru. Upper Peru became a separate state, which was named Bolivia in Bolï¿½var's honor, in 1825. The constitution, which he drew up for Bolivia, is one of his most important political pronouncements. Today he is remembered throughout South America, and in Venezuela and Bolivia his birthday is a national holiday.
Although Bolï¿½var never prepared a systematic treatise, his essays, proclamations, and letters constitute some of the most eloquent writing not of the independence period alone, but of any period in Latin American history. His analysis of the region's fundamental problems, ideas on political organization and proposals for Latin American integration are relevant and widely read today, even among Latin Americans of all countries and of all political persuasions. The "Cartagena Letter," the "Jamaica Letter," and the "Angostura Address," are widely cited and reprinted.
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SERIES EDITORS GENERAL INTRODUCTION
AN OVERVIEW OF THE BOLIVARIAN SOURCES
Education and Culture
Memorial Addressed to
Response from a South American to
The Angostura Address 15 February 1819
The Bolivian Constitution 1826
Congress the End of the Dictatorship and Announcing
Final Proclamation of the Liberator
Letter to Baptis Irvine Agent of the United States
Invitation to the Governments of Colombia Mexico
Letter to Colonel Patrick Campbell British Charge
Application of Capital Punishment to Officials Who Have
Method to Be Employed in the Education of My Nephew
action administration America anarchy Angostura appointed Armies of Venezuela arms army Article aspire authority Bogota Bolivar Liberator President Bolivian Buenos Aires capital Caracas cause Chamber Chamber of Senators Chile citizens civil Colombia conduct Congress Congress of Angostura Congress of Panama constitution courts crime Cundinamarca Cuzco death decree defend elections electoral enemies established Europe Executive Power exercise federation forces freedom glory governors Granada guarantees Guayaquil hands Holy Alliance honor human independence Indians Jose judges junta justice land laws leaders Legislative Body letter Lima matter military monarchy Monteverde nation never obligation officers Panama patriots peace person Peruvian political priests provinces Puerto Cabello Quetzalcoatl reform regard Republic republican respect revolution Santander secretaries Senate Simon Bolivar Simon Bolivar Liberator slaves social soldiers Spain Spaniards Spanish Sucre supreme tax collectors tion tribute troops tyranny tyrants Upper Peru usurpation Venezuela vice president violation virtue