Complexity Explained (Google eBook)

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Springer Science & Business Media, Nov 9, 2007 - Computers - 414 pages
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This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. It illuminates how complex collective behavior emerges from the parts of a system, due to the interaction between the system and its environment. You will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research. It is shown that very different complex phenomena of nature and society can be analyzed and understood by nonlinear dynamics since many systems of very different fields, such as physics, chemistry, biology, economics, psychology and sociology etc. have similar architecture. “Complexity Explained” is not highly technical and mathematical, but teaches and uses the basic mathematical notions of dynamical system theory making the book useful for students of science majors and graduate courses, but it should be readable for a more general audience; actually for those, who ask: What complex systems really are?
  

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Contents

Complex Systems The Intellectual Landscape
1
12 Characteristics of Simple and Complex Systems
5
122 Simple Systems
6
123 Complex Systems
7
13 Connecting the Dots
20
History of Complex Systems Research
25
212 Reductionism and Complexity in Molecular Biology Capsule History of Early Molecular Biology
29
22 Ancestors of present day complex system research
35
56 Artificial Intelligence Herbert Simon and the Bounded Rationality
175
from Herbert Simon to Brian Arthur
178
58 Minority Game
180
59 Summary and What Next?
182
Statistical Laws From Symmetric to Asymmetric
185
Brownian Motion
187
613 Liouville Process Wiener and Special Wiener Process OrnsteinUhlenbeck Process
188
62 Bimodal and Multimodal Distributions
190

222 Cybernetics
37
Theory of Dissipative Structures Synergetics and Catastrophe Theory
45
From the Clockwork World View to Irreversibility and Back?
56
312 Linear Time Concepts
59
32 The Newtonian Clockwork Universe
61
322 Keplers Integral Laws
66
323 Newtons Differential Laws Hamilton Equations Conservative Oscillation Dissipation
68
33 Mechanics Versus Thermodynamics
75
332 Steam Engine Feedback control Irreversibility
77
34 The Birth of the Modern Theory of Dynamical Systems
79
35 Oscillations
81
Limit Cycles
83
A Few Words About the Modern Theory of Dynamical Systems
86
Then and Now
87
what Is Important and What Is Not?
91
363 The Necessity of Being Chaotic
94
Why and How?
96
Chaotic Itinerancy
98
37 Direction of Evolution
100
372 Is Something NeverDecreasing During Evolution?
102
Revisitedand Criticized
105
The Dynamic World View in Action
109
411 Causal Versus Teleological Description
110
412 Causality Networks Emergent Novelty
112
A Prototype of Nonlinear Science
113
421 On the StructureDynamics Relationship for Chemical Reactions
118
422 Chemical Kinetics as a Metalanguage
119
423 Spatiotemporal Patterns in Chemistry and Biology
120
The Half Admitted Renaissance of Cybernetics and Systems Theory
130
432 Cells As SelfReferential Systems
131
433 The OldNew Systems Biology
133
Model Framework and Applications for Genetic Networks
135
Biological and Social
140
442 The Epidemic Propagation of Infections and Ideas
144
443 Modeling Social Epidemics
146
45 Evolutionary Dynamics
147
46 Dynamic Models of War and Love
148
462 Is Love Different from War?
151
Some Examples
154
472 Opinion Dynamics
157
Some Examples
159
482 Controlling Chaos in Economic Models
161
Controlling Chaos
162
The Search for Laws Deductive Versus Inductive
164
From Newton to Russell and Whitehead
167
53 Karl Popper and the Problem of Induction
169
The Real Pioneer of Complex Systems Studies
170
63 Long Tail Distributions
191
632 Generation of Lognormal and Power Law Distributions
194
Simple and Complex Structures Between Order and Randomness
200
72 Structural Complexity
203
721 Structures and Graphs
204
722 Complexity of Graphs
208
723 Fractal Structures
212
An Elementary Mathematical Model
217
Between Order and Randomness
219
742 Networks in Cell Biology
221
743 Epidemics on Networks
223
744 Citation and Collaboration Networks in Science and Technology
225
Complexity of the Brain Structure Function and Dynamics
237
82 Windows on the Brain
238
A Brief Review
239
83 Approaches and Organizational Principles
241
832 Bottom Up and top Down
242
833 Organizational Principles
243
84 Single Cells
247
Deterministic and Stochastic Framework
250
85 Structure Dynamics Function
255
852 Neural Rhythms
261
Different Roots
283
Towards a Unified Theory of BrainMind and Computer
289
862 From Cognitive Science to Embodied Cognition Cognitive Science
291
863 The Brain as a Hermeneutic Device
296
864 From Neurons to Soul and Back
299
From Models to Decision Making
304
912 Artificial Life
306
913 Artificial Societies
311
914 AgentBased Computational Economics
316
Where We Are Now?
318
922 Evolutionary Game Theory
322
Earthquake Eruptions Epileptics Seizures and Stock Market Crashes
328
932 Phenomenology Earthquake Eruption
329
933 Statistical Analysis of Extreme Events
338
934 Towards Predicting Seizures
341
Analysis of Price Peaks
344
936 Dynamical Models of Extreme Events
345
How Many Cultures We Have?
353
Natural and Human Socioeconomic Systems
354
102 The Ingredients of Complex Systems
357
In Defense of Bounded Rationality
359
References
365
Index
392
Copyright

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Page 2 - There once were two watchmakers, named Hora and Tempus, who manufactured very fine watches. Both of them were highly regarded, and the phones in their workshops rang frequently new customers were constantly calling them. However, Hora prospered, while Tempus became poorer and poorer and finally lost his shop. What was the reason? The watches the men made consisted of about 1,000 parts each. Tempus had so constructed his that if he had one partly assembled and had to put it down - to answer the phone,...
Page 2 - The better the customers liked his watches, the more they phoned him, the more difficult it became for him to find enough uninterrupted time to finish a watch. The watches that Hora made were no less complex than those of Tempus. But he had designed them so that he could put together subassemblies of about ten elements each.
Page 2 - The watches that Hora made were no less complex than those of Tempus. But he had designed them so that he could put together subassemblies of about ten elements each. Ten of these subassemblies again, could be put together into a larger subassembly; and a system of ten of the latter subassemblies constituted the whole watch. Hence, when Hora had to put down a partly assembled watch in order to answer the phone, he lost only a small part of his work, and he assembled his watches in only a fraction...

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