muddy, and their guns and accoutrements had been taken into the baggage wagons accompanying the regiment. He noticed that the men had no guns, and, approaching Major Ward, asked, "Where are your men's guns?" He replied, "In the baggage wagon." The colonel exclaimed, " What have you got them in the baggage wagon for? You are in more danger from the Bumps in this neighborhood than from any British that you will meet."

The names of the officers and soldiers under command of Captain Greenleaf Pratt are not known. The muster roll is not among the archives of the State House in Boston, and no copy of that roll is known to exist.

No attempt was made by the enemy to pass the fort at the Gurnet or to land their troops, and after several months the men were dismissed and returned to their homes.

On the 5th day of December, 1814, it was voted to make an addition to the pay allowed by the government to the soldiers who were called out by Major-General Goodwin for the defence of Plymouth : —

Voted " to allow the non-commissioned officers and private soldiers who were detached from the town of Middleboro for the town of Plymouth in September last an addition of wages together with what is allowed by the government of this commonwealth which will raise their wages to $15. per month."

It was many years before the town recovered from the great blow its business enterprises received during 1812 and 1814. Many of the inhabitants were employed in other towns, where they enlisted and served in the war, but their names can be ascertained only from tradition or genealogical records of various families.

A company was organized, a portion of which was from Middleboro and did service on the frontier of New York, but the names of the Middleboro men in that company are not known.

During the entire war the New England states were dissatisfied. At first the army commanders had not been wisely chosen and suffered defeat, the coast defences were neglected, and the government seemed unable to protect them. Late in 1814 they sent delegates to Hartford1 to consider the difficulties. The meetings of this Hartford Convention — held in secret — alarmed the government, which feared it might be a plan of the federalists to break up the Union. They made a public report recommending that New England be allowed to protect her coast without waiting for the federal government. Peace was, however, soon declared, and no further steps were taken in this matter. The battle of New Orleans, January 8, 1815, resulted in so complete a victory that in twenty-rive minutes the whole British line was in retreat, having lost the commander and two thousand five hundred men, while of the Americans eight were killed and thirteen wounded. Peace negotiations had been going forward,2 and a treaty was ratified at Ghent in Belgium on December 24, 1814, but the word did not reach America in time to prevent the last disastrous battle. One result of the war was the growth of power of the United States. The accurate aim of the American gunners had done much to win the victory. While the gunboats built in such large numbers for the coast defence proved a failure, the naval successes won for the country the respect of other nations, and never again did Great Britain attempt to enforce her "orders in council" or the impressment of seamen, which had caused the war.

1 Bradford, History of Massachusetts, vol. ii, chap. 13.

2 Montgomery, History of United States, p. 219.

CHAPTER XI

MIDDLEBORO IN THE WAR OF THE REBELLION

IBERTY and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable," were the closing words of that "most remarkable speech ever made in the American Congress," when Daniel Webster replied to Hayne. Later, in his reply to Calhoun, "There can be no secession without revolution," his words found an echo in the sentiment so widespread over the North. Middleboro was too close a neighbor to Marshfield, Webster's home, too close a neighbor to Plymouth, the home of liberty, too deeply imbued with the spirit of patriotism and loyalty to that Union for which her fathers had fought, not to be stirred to her depths as the murmurs of a great struggle began to be heard. Thirty years after Webster's famous speech, when the Civil War threatened to destroy the Union, thousands all over the land were willing to die to save it.

It is beyond our province to trace the history of those thrilling times, how with the new discoveries, new inventions, new territories, came new problems, or old ones under a new guise. The Compromise of 1850, the Fugitive Slave Law, the struggle between North and South for the possession of Kansas, the Dred Scott Decision, the John Brown raid, the election of Lincoln as President, all led the way to the secession of the southern states from the Union (1861). On March 4, 1861, at his inauguration, Lincoln said, " I have no purpose directly, or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so." At the same time he felt it his duty to "preserve, protect, and defend" the Union. On April 12, 1861, the first gun was fired at Fort Sumter. No longer was it possible to settle the slave question by a peaceful arrangement; war had begun, and the next day the President called for seventy-five thousand volunteers.

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Middleboro furnished readily her full quota of men, and contributed most liberally to supply the varied necessities occasioned by this great national struggle. Few of the northern statesmen were more active or energetic than John A. Andrew,1 the illustrious war governor, by whose foresight and alacrity Massachusetts was perhaps better prepared to meet the exigencies of the war than any of the northern states, and was the first to send her troops to the front.2 Middleboro's patriotism is shown by the promptness with which she responded to the first call. The order from the governor reached the town at six o'clock at night, requiring the company to report for duty on Boston Common at nine o'clock the next morning. Captain Harlow lived eight miles from the station, and the members of the company were scattered through Middleboro and the adjoining towns, covering an area of about fifteen miles, and yet such was the readiness with which the men responded, that when the morning train at twenty minutes past seven left the station in Middleboro, more than three quarters of the company were present.

Of the seventy-five thousand men called to serve three months, Massachusetts,3 on the 15th day of April, received an order for two regiments, and later for four, and so the Third, Fourth, Sixth, and Eighth were sent. The state system of organization of these regiments required but eight companies, while the United States standard demanded ten, hence a reorganization was necessary where it was possible. The departure of these regiments for three months' service aroused the people to form recruiting companies, so that the call on May 3 for regiments to volunteer for three years met with a ready response. On August 4, 1862, the President called

1 Lossing, Field-Book of the Civil War, vol. i, p. 203.

2 " Before the lapse of forty-eight hours a Massachusetts regiment, armed and equipped, was on its way to Washington." Nicolay and Hay, Abraham Lincoln* vol. iv, p. 85.

• Bowen, Massachusetts in the War, 186r-r86j.

for three hundred thousand additional men to serve for nine months. These were organized on the plan of the Massachusetts militia. Other regiments were sent to the field later.

Before we sketch the history of these regiments in which men from Middleboro served, let us take a brief glance at the events of these four years, that we may be better able to follow our men in their brave struggle to defend the Union.

The first great battle at Bull Run resulted in the defeat of the Union forces (July 21, 1861). In February, 1862, Fort Henry and Fort Donelson were captured by the Union forces; in March occurred the famous battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac; in April the victory at Pittsburg Landing and Island Number Ten. The greatest military achievement of that year was the capture of New Orleans (April 25), when Farragut passed the forts and destroyed the Confederate fleet; the second battle of Bull Run, in August, was shortly followed by the battle of Antietam (September 17). From the Proclamation of Emancipation on New Year's Day, 1863, the North strove to make the nation free —to restore the Union — without slavery. In the spring General Hooker met Lee and Jackson at Chancellorsville (May, 1863), where a fierce battle raged for two days, resulting in a dearly bought Confederate victory, and in the fall of their brilliant general, Stonewall Jackson. A month later Lee again attempted to pass to the North and was defeated at Gettysburg (July), while another great battle of almost equal importance was being fought at Vicksburg, followed by the surrender of Port Hudson. In the southwest the Union forces had been successful after severe battles at Chickamauga (September), Missionary Ridge, and Lookout Mountain (November). In May, 1864, occurred the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania; in June the Confederate victory at Cold Harbor and the siege of Petersburg, followed in August by Sheridan's raid in the Shenandoah Valley. At the same time Sherman was marching through Georgia, finally taking Atlanta (September 2), whence he marched to the sea. Meanwhile, Admiral Farragut's last great battle resulted in closing Mobile to Confederate supplies. Then Sheridan cut

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