Sports, Jobs, and Taxes: The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Stadiums, Page 3 (Google eBook)
Roger G. Noll, Andrew S. Zimbalist
Brookings Institution Press, 1997 - Business & Economics - 525 pages
This book examines the economic impact of new stadiums or a sports franchise on the local economy. It explores such general issues as the appropriate method for measuring economic benefits and costs, the source of the bargaining power of teams in obtaining subsidies from local government, the local politics of attracting and retaining teams, the relationship between sports and local employment, and the importance of stadium design in influencing the economic effects of a facility. The book also contains case studies of major league sports facilities in Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Indianapolis, San Francisco, and the Twin Cities and of minor league baseball stadiums and spring training facilities. The primary conclusions are the sports teams and stadiums are not a source of local economic growth and employment; the size of the net subsidy exceeds the financial benefit of a new stadium; and cities are probably willing to subsidize sports teams because of the intense popularity of sports among a substantial proportion of voters and businesses and the leverage that teams enjoy from the monopoly position of professional sports leagues.
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The Economic Impact of Sports Teams and Facilities
The Employment Effect of Teams and Sports Facilities
Subsidizing Stadiums Who Benefits Who Pays?
Direct Democracy and the Stadium Mess
Stadiums and Urban Space
Stadiums and Major League Sports The Twin Cities
Baltimores Camden Yards Ballparks
Bearing Down in Chicago Location Location Location
Clevelands Gateway to the Future
Stickball in San Francisco
Minor League Teams and Communities
Sports Jobs and Taxes The Real Connection
Sports Politics and Economics The Cincinnati Story
50 percent analysis annual Arena attendance attract average ballpark Baltimore Bengals built Camden Yards Chicago China Basin Cincinnati city's Cleveland Club seats consumption benefits cost County direct democracy dollars Dome downtown area downtown sports facilities economic impact effect employment estimated expenditures fans federal Florida football franchise funds Gateway area Giants Gund Arena Hamilton County host income increase incremental Indianapolis investment issue Jacobs Field Lease expires luxury boxes Luxury suites major Maryland Mayor McCormick Place Met Center Metrodome metropolitan area million Minneapolis minor league baseball minor league teams operations Orioles owners percent of gross players political professional sports proposal PSLs referendum region renovation Rent Riverfront Riverfront Stadium sales tax San Francisco season share signage Soldier Field spending sports team spring training Stadium Authority subsidy Target Center tax-exempt bonds taxable sales taxpayers Team retains ticket vote voters
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