Observational Studies

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 8, 2002 - Business & Economics - 375 pages
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An Observational study is an empiric investigation of the effects caused by a treatment, policy , or intervention in which it is not possible to assign subjects at random to treatment or control, as would be done in a controlled experiment. Observational studies are common in most fields that study the effects of treatments on people. The second edition of ┐Observational Studies┐ is about 50 percent longer than the first edition, with many new examples and methods. There are new chapters on nonadditive models for treatment effects (Chapter 5) and planning observational studies (Chapter 11) and Chapter 9, on coherence, has been extensively rewritten. Paul R. Rosenbaum is Robert G. Putzel Professor, Department of Statistics, The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association.
  

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Contents

Observational Studies
1
12 Some Observational Studies
2
13 Purpose of This Book
10
14 Bibliographic Notes
11
15 References
16
Randomized Experiments
19
22 The Lady Tasting Tea
21
23 Randomized Experiments
23
66 Bibliographic Notes
226
68 References
227
Multiple Reference Groups in CaseReferent Studies
231
72 Matched Studies with Two Referent Groups
237
Selection and Hidden Bias
244
Derivation of Bounds for Sensitivity Analysis
246
75 Bibliographic Notes
248
76 Problems
249

24 Testing the Hypothesis of No Treatment Effect
27
25 Simple Models for Treatment Effects
40
26 Confidence Intervals
44
27 Point Estimates
46
28 More Complex Outcomes
50
Effect Increasing Tests Under Alternatives
54
The Set of Treatment Assignments
55
211 Bibliographic Notes
63
212 Problems
64
213 References
66
Overt Bias in Observational Studies
71
32 Adjustments by Exact Stratification and Matching
77
33 CaseReferent Studies
83
34 Small Sample Inference with an Unknown Propensity Score
86
35 Large Sample Inference with an Unknown Propensity Score
90
36 Inexact Matching Followed by Stratification
92
37 Bibliographic Notes
99
38 Problems
100
Sensitivity to Hidden Bias
105
42 A Model for Sensitivity Analysis
106
43 Matched Pairs
110
44 Sensitivity Analysis for SignScore Statistics
119
45 Matching with Multiple Controls and Continuous Responses
135
46 Sensitivity Analysis for Comparing Two Unmatched Groups
140
Technical Results and Proofs
151
48 Bibliographic Notes
158
410 References
163
Models for Treatment Effects
171
52 Order Statistics
173
54 Instrumental Variables
180
Binary Responses
188
Displacements
192
57 Inference About a Quantile
195
58 Bibliographic Notes
198
511 References
201
Known Effects
205
62 An Outcome Known to Be Unaffected by the Treatment
214
63 An Outcome With Known Direction of Effect
221
64 The Behavior of T with Nonnegative Effects
222
65 Bias of Known Direction
223
Multiple Control Groups
253
Systematic Variation and Bracketing
263
83 Comparing Outcomes in Two Control Groups
265
84 Bibliographic Notes
269
85 Problems
270
86 References
272
Coherence and Focused Hypotheses
277
92 Signed Rank Statistics for Coherent Predictions
279
Do Anesthetic Gases Cause Mutations?
282
94 Properties of the Coherent Signed Rank Test
285
96 Strengths and Limitations of Coherence
286
ArrangementIncreasing Functions of Matrices
288
98 Bibliographic Notes
289
99 Problems
290
Constructing Matched Sets and Strata
295
102 The Propensity Score
296
103 Optimal Strata
302
104 Optimal Matching
311
105 Bibliographic Notes
322
107 Problems
323
108 References
328
Planning an Observational Study
333
112 Three Observational Studies
336
113 Choice of Research Hypothesis
339
114 A Control Group
342
115 Defining Treated and Control Groups
344
116 Competing Theories Not Null and Alternative Hypotheses
347
Multiple Treatment Assignment Mechanisms
351
An Absent Association
352
119 Stability Analyses and Minimizing the Need for Stability Analyses
353
Abrupt ShortLived Treatments
355
1111 Natural Blocks
357
1112 Refute Several Alternative Explanations
358
1114 Problems
359
1115 References
360
Some Strategic Issues
367
122 Some Specific Suggestions
368
123 References
369
Index
370
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