Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning

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Springer Science & Business Media, Sep 1, 1980 - Science - 298 pages
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The purpose of this monograph is to review the known physical aspects of two unusual forms of atmospheric luminous phenomena, to deduce their characteristics and properties, and to promote efforts to improve their understanding. These two forms, called ball lightning and bead lightning, have visual images that differ from the linear image associated with normallightning. The terms "balliightning" and "bead lightning" are used to denote atmospheric luminous forms which are occasionally observed and have the geometrie shape suggested by their name. Vet, it is possible that neither phenomenon may in fact be a form of lightning in the sense of a continuous electrical discharge. Bead lightning has been described as the residue of a cloud-to cloud or cloud-to-ground lightning stroke and has the appearance of aseries of luminous balls separated by dark regions, thus resembling astring of pearls, and remains visible for about one second. Ball lightning has been described as a single luminous globe appearing ne ar the ground after a lightning stroke and also remaining visible for about one second. Both phenomena remain visible far longer than normal lightning flashes.
  

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Contents

Introduction
7
12 Existence of Bead Lightning and Ball Lightning
9
Bead Lightning
17
22 Bead Lightning Photographs
18
23 Bead Lightning Origins
34
Ball Lightning
39
32 Observed Properties
41
Deduced Characteristics of Ball Lightning
51
Stationary Image
111
Uninterrupted Singular Trace
115
Natural Discharges
124
Artificial Phenomena
128
53 Unavailable Photographs
136
Skepticism
139
62 Optical Illusions
142
63 Perceptual Effects
144

42 Energy Density
52
43 Energy Interpretations
70
44 Temperature
76
45 Radiation
79
46 Magnetic Field
81
47 Inferences
82
Ball Lightning Photographs
85
52 Classes of Photographs
86
Multiple Path
91
Lightning Channel Decay
97
Pyrotechnic Appearance
106
64 Summary and Erroneous Identifications
145
Laboratory Ball Lightning
153
Use of Natural Lightning
155
Gaseous Electrical Discharge
163
Metallic Vapor
182
Electrodeless Discharges
186
76 Summary and Reflections
200
Bibliography
209
82 Ball Lightning Bead Lightning and Related References
210
Copyright

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