Physiology of Stressed Crops: Osmoregulation and Protection
To cope with the abiotic stress-induced osmotic problems, plants adapt by either increasing uptake of inorganic ions from the external solution, or by de novo synthesis of organic compatible solutes acting as osmolytes. Of the osmoregulants and protectants discussed in this volume, trehalose, fructans, ectoine and citrulline, which are generated in different species, in osmotically ineffective amounts, mitigate the stress effects on cells/plants and improve productivity. There are several pieces of encouraging research discussed in this volume showing significant improvement in stress tolerance and in turn productivity by involving genetic engineering techniques.
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Sugars The Key Osmolytes
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abiotic stresses activity antioxidant ascorbate peroxidase barley betaine biosynthesis Ca2+ carbohydrate cDNA chloroplasts choline citrulline compared compatible solutes concentration crop cultivars cytosolic decreased dehydration dehydrogenase drought stress drought tolerance dry weight ectoine effect encoding enhanced enzyme expression fructan gene genetic genotypes glutathione reductase glycinebetaine growth higher hydroxyl radical increased induced inositol invertase K+ channels K+ uptake leaf leaves levels lipid maize mannitol membrane mesophyll metabolism molecular myo-inositol NaCl osmolytes osmoprotectant osmoregulation osmotic osmotic adjustment osmotic stress oxidase oxidative stress oxygen P5CS pathway percent peroxidation phosphate photosynthesis Plant Cell Plant Physiol polyamine potassium proline proline accumulation protection protein putrescine raffinose regulation response rice role roots salinity salt stress salt tolerance scavenging seedlings seeds shoots soluble soybean species spermidine spermine stachyose starch stress tolerance sucrose sugar synthase synthesis tissues transcripts transgenic plants transgenic tobacco transport trehalose turgor umol water stress wheat wild-type