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Costs of the policy option
Elements of expected frequency
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amount availability of capacity average peak load back-up blackout capacity available Capacity shortage capital costs consumers cost-benefit analysis costs and benefits crisis decrease defined demand response deviations disconnecting groups dummy Dutch economic electricity customers electricity demand electricity market emergency imports estimate of outage expected frequency figures flexibility factors framework frequency distribution implies import capacity increase indirect effects inputs investment costs Joode keeping spare capacity KEMA level of competitiveness level of spare level of supply Lijesen market failure million euro MW of spare Netherlands occur OECD one-hour optimal capacity optimal level optimal magnitude optimum outage costs outcomes peak hours percent policy measure power outage present value prevented producers Randstad reserve contracts scenarios security of supply socially optimal spare generation capacity spot market prices stochastic elements supply security Table TenneT Transmission System Operator transport capacity uncertainty unexpected unavailability welfare effects welfare loss