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11 Caus 11 Pass 3rd pers adjectives Anga Anusvara aorist Atmanepada Bahuvrihi bases ending beginning with consonants beginning with vowels benedictive Bha base Brahman changed Chur compounds conjugated declension declined derived desiderative Dhatupatha dhvam diphthongs dropt Dual Dvigu ending in consonants feminine followed forms gerund grammar Hu class impf inserted Instr instrum intermediate Karmadharaya lengthen letters likewise lingual masc masculine monosyllabic nasal native grammarians neut Neuter nominal bases nouns optional Pada base Panini Parasmaipada participle passive Periphrastic plur Plural preceded prepositions reduplicated perfect reduplicative syllable roots ending rules Sandhi Sanskrit Satam second aorist semivowels sibilants Siddh.-Kaum Sing Singular sonant special tenses suffixes Taddhita take Guna Tatpurusha terminations beginning Verbal bases verbs ending Visarga vowel Vriddhi words
Page vi - The grammatical system elaborated by native grammarians is, in itself, most perfect ; and those who have tested Panini's work, will readily admit that there is no grammar in any language that could vie with the wonderful mechanism of his eight books of grammatical rules.
Page xi - Panini and his successors. The grammatical system of Hindu grammarians is so peculiar, that rules which we should group together, are scattered about in different parts of their manuals. We may have the general rule in the last, and the exceptions in the first book, and even then we are by no means certain that exceptions to these exceptions may not occur somewhere else. I shall give but one instance. There is a root unj jdgri, which forms its Aorist by adding ^ isham, $ i£, $ir it.
Page ii - THE FIRST BOOK OF THE HITOPADESA : containing the Sanskrit Text, with Interlinear Transliteration, Grammatical Analysis, and English Translation. [Price 7*.
Page 62 - Sanskrit nouns have three genders, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter ; three numbers, Singular, Dual, and Plural ; and eight cases, Nominative, Accusative, Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive, Locative, and Vocative.
Page 1 - Indian alphabet can be proved with scientific precision, the second Indian alphabet, that which is found in the inscription of Girnar, and which is the real source of all other Indian alphabets, as well as of those of Tibet and Burmah, has not as yet been traced back in a satisfactory manner to any Semitic prototype. (Prinsep's Indian Antiquities by Thomas, vol.
Page 137 - P=iĞi<4n krodham vinayate, he turns away or dismisses wrath ; a subtle distinction which it is possible to appreciate when stated, but difficult to bring under any general rules. Again, in Sanskrit as well as in Greek, some verbs are middle in certain tenses only, but active or middle in others; eg Atm.
Page 235 - Tatpurusha compound, in which the last word is determined by a preceding adjective, eg tOeftrMri nilotpalam, blue lotus. The component words, if dissolved, would stand in the same case, whereas in other Tatpurushas the preceding word is governed by the last, the man of the king, or fire-wood, ie wood for fire. The Dvigu again may be called a subdivision of the Karmadharaya, being a compound in which the first word is not an adjective in general, but always a numeral : fs'N dvigavam, two oxen, or...
Page 51 - The final ^ k or \ffh, after losing its aspiration, becomes n^, which is further changed to eR k. § 114. Nominal or verbal bases ending in consonants and followed by terminations consisting of a single consonant, drop the termination altogether, two consonants not being tolerated at the end of a word ($ 55).
Page xii - has enabled even beginners to find their way through the labyrinth of native grammar," has been for many years out of print, and is continually enquired for by those who wish to obtain a well-grounded knowledge of a language, the students of which in Europe alone may be counted no longer by tens, but by hundreds. For the publication of this edition such students are indebted to the enlightened...
Page 8 - The palatal letters ^ ch and *lj have the sound of ch in 'church* and ofj in 'join.' 5. The lingual letters are said to be pronounced by bringing the lower surface of the tongue against the roof of the palate. As a matter of fact the ordinary pronunciation of t, d, n in English is what Hindus would call lingual, and it is essential to distinguish the Sanskrit dentals by bringing the tip of the tongue against the very edge of the upper front-teeth. In transcribing English words the natives naturally...