Immigration and Labor: The Economic Aspects of European Immigration to the United States (Google eBook)

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G.P. Putnam, 1922 - Labor and laboring classes - 574 pages
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Contents

CHAPTER III
61
Majority of the old immigration unskilled laborers
67
Opposition of organized labor antedates the new immigration
78
Demand for labor increasing faster than population
86
CHAPTER V
103
Displacement of the wageearner
109
Native and foreignborn workmen equally affected by
125
rBLE PAGE
131
Ratio of unemployment in Massachusetts 18881908
138
CHAPTER VII
148
Average number of wageearners employed in manufactures
151
Increase of the number of miners in the United States clas
157
Extraordinary expansion of the iron and steel industry Native
158
Racial displacement a negligible quantity
165
Number of English Welsh Irish and German male bread
166
Specified occupations in Massachusetts with a decreasing
175
CHAPTER VIII
177
Migration of workers from Russian Poland to Germany
181
Membership of tradeunions in Germany 18901900
187
Emigration from Germany to all countries outside
194
The Scandinavians
196
Distribution of Scandinavian immigrant breadwinners
201
Norway
202
fa Annual average emigration from Sweden to other European
207
G The United Kingdom
209
Emigration from Ireland decreasing since 1860
215
CHAPTER IX
221
Per cent ratio of native white children under five years
224
CHAPTER X
228
Per cent distribution of the families of Boston according
242
Per cent of families keeping boarders or lodgers among
252
Existence of a race standard of living not proved
256
Average expenditure per man per day of selected families
258
E Clothing
265
Expenditure for clothing in normal families of unskillea
267
TABLEPAGB
268
CHAPTER XI
274
Tenancy increasing with the growth of urban population
282
EFFECT OF IMMIGRATION ON WAGES
284
Defects of wage statistics
294
Average annual earnings of female employees in manufactures
301
Increase of wages result of industrial expansion
302
Wages of older employees kept up by immigration from Southern
309
Weekly hours of labor in Massachusetts 1872 and 1903
313
Reduction of the working day in the cotton mills
315
Discrimination against immigrants
347
CHAPTER XVI
353
Per cent distribution by nativity of lodgers at municipal
355
Crime
358
Competition of farmhouse labor in the middle of the nineteenth
365
Comparative growth of the value of the products of the cloth
369
American garment workers in the country accepting a lower rate
371
No competition between union labor and unorganized immigrants
377
Average yearly earnings of cottonmill operatives by sex
383
CHAPTER XIX
384
Recent expansion of the woolen industry
387
CHAPTER XX
394
TAILS PAGB
396
Retention of skilled men conditioned upon the employment of
401
Per cent of skilled iron and steel workers by location
406
Wages in the iron and steel industry vary directly as the ratio
408
CHAPTER XXI
414
Growth of population and of the production of coal 1880
419
Advancement of experienced miners
421
Fluctuations in the demand for coal
432
Number of wageearners employed in anthracite coal mines
437
Rise in wages
438
The company house and the company store as old as the coal
445
Membership of the United Mine Workers of America 1890
447
Failure of the organization in West Virginia and the Southern
451
CHAPTER XXII
458
Majority of accidents preventable by mining legislation
468
Number and per cent distribution of fatal accidents in coal
474
PART IV
487
CHAPTER XXIV
493
1910
495
Importation of Mexican peons permitted by the Department
499
Purchasing power of union wage rates measured by retail
501
Increase in the number of strikes
505
TABLEPAGE
507
Monopolistic price control
511
Note Importation of Mexican contractlaborers
530
Annual average immigration distributed by occupa
531
greatest and least numbers
538
Number and increase or decrease of foreignborn white
544
Average income and expenditures of wageearners
550
Number of employees and fatal accident rates in
556
Alphabetical Index
561
Congestion in the settlements of past generations of immi
565
Copyright

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Page 76 - English; they import many Books from Germany; and of the six printing houses in the Province, two are entirely German, two half German half English, and but two entirely English; They have one German News-paper, and one half German.
Page 76 - The signs in our streets have inscriptions in both languages, and in some places only German. They begin of late to make all their bonds and other legal instruments in their own language, which (though I think it ought not to be) are allowed good in our courts, where the German business so increases, that there is continued need of interpreters ; and I suppose in a few years they will also be necessary in the Assembly, to tell one half of our legislators what the other half say.
Page 63 - Society for the Prevention of Pauperism, in the city of New York, read and accepted, Feb.
Page 499 - ... and from 7 to 17 per cent less than it was before the sharp upward movement of prices in 1916. The purchasing power of the established week's work, moreover, was from 20 to 30 per cent less than in the nineties and from 10 to 20 per cent less than in 1915.
Page 442 - State, to issue for the payment of labor, any order or other paper whatsoever, unless the same purports to be redeemable for its face value, In lawful money of the United States...
Page 107 - No part of the population of America is exclusively agricultural, excepting slaves and their employers who combine capital and labour in particular works. Free Americans, who cultivate the soil, follow many other occupations. Some portion of the furniture and tools which they use is commonly made by themselves. They frequently build their own houses, and carry to market, at whatever distance, the produce of their own industry. They are spinners and weavers; they make soap and candles, as well as,...
Page 219 - The American shrank from the industrial competition thus thrust upon him. He was unwilling himself to engage in the lowest kind of day labor with these new elements of the population ; he was even more unwilling to bring sons and daughters into the world to enter into that competition.
Page 76 - I remember when they modestly declined intermeddling in our elections, but now they come in droves and carry all before them, except in one or two counties.
Page 76 - Those who come hither are generally the most stupid of their own nation, and, as ignorance is often attended with credulity when knavery would mislead it, and with suspicion when honesty would set it right; and...
Page 120 - commander ' whose heart must be as black as his craft, who is paid a dollar a head for all he brings to the market, and more in proportion to the distance if they bring them from such a distance that they cannot easily get back.

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