Tissue and Organ Regeneration in Adults

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Aug 1, 2001 - Medical - 383 pages
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The emphasis throughout this volume is on the systematic development of the viewpoint that regeneration is an instance of synthesis of tissues and organs. This has three simple consequences. The first is the requirement for a special kind of experimental reactor, free of tissues that do not regenerate spontaneously. The second calls for meticulous physicochemical and biological characterization of the end products from such a synthetic reaction. The third calls for the required use of appropriate non-diffusible regulators in the experimental reactor. These insoluble matrices induce adult cells to abandon their normal proclivity in closing up adult wounds in exchange for synthesizing physiological tissues. This approach is independent of the organ under study. It is developed in substantial depth during the first several chapters by limiting the discussion to just two two organs that are quite different from each other, namely skin and peripheral nerves. The conclusions from this analysis apply to either organ with roughly equal strength. This intriguing result clearly suggests a generic methodology for synthesis of other organs. The book also features an extensive bibliography, and extensive bodies of independent data on organ regeneration from the journal literature have been collected together for the first time and accessibly presented in tabular form, enabling direct comparisons. In short, the generic organ-blind methodology described in this volume should be useful to most students and practitioners of tissue engineering.
  

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Contents

The Irreversibility of Injury
1
13 Spontaneous and Induced Regeneration
2
14 Diversity of Spontaneously Regenerative Phenomena
3
15 Anatomical and Phylogenetic Focus of Regeneration
5
16 Wounds Lesions and Defects
6
18 Critical Size of Defect versus Nature of Injured Tissue
9
19 A Universal End Product of Repair Processes in All Organs?
13
110 Theoretical Views of Adult Failure to Regenerate
15
632 The Epineurium
161
633 In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Synthesis of a Perineurium
162
64 Synthesis of a Nerve Trunk
164
642 Schwann Cell Addition to the Tubulated Gap
167
643 Filled and Unfilled Silicone Tubes
168
644 Biodurable Tubes Other than Silicone Tubes
172
646 Degradable Tubes Based on Natural Polymers
175
647 Semipermeable Tubes
179

111 The Missing Organ and How to Replace It
18
1111 Transplantation
19
1112 Auto grafting
20
7774 Stem Cells
21
1116 Induced Organ Regeneration
22
112 Synthesis of Tissues and Organs
23
113 Summary
25
Nonregenerative Tissues
26
22 Critical Presence of Exudate Inside the Defect
27
23 Certain Tissues in an Organ Regenerate Spontaneously
28
231 Epitheliocentric Viewpoint
29
232 Axonocentric Viewpoint
31
233 Spontaneously Regenerative Tissues
35
24 Other Tissues Are Nonregenerative
36
242 The Endoneurial Stroma Is Nonregenerative
37
243 Evidence for and Against Regeneration of Other Nonneuronal Tissues
39
244 The Supporting Tissue Stroma of Several Organs Is Nonregenerative
41
25 Are Basement Membranes Regenerative?
43
26 Regenerative Similarity of Tissues in Different Organs
44
27 The Tissue Triad
46
28 Summary
49
Anatomically WellDefined Defects
51
32 Generation of the Experimental Volume
52
33 Deletion of Nonregenerative Tissues
53
34 Anatomical Boundaries
54
35 Magnitude of Experimental Volume
57
36 Physical Containment
59
37 The Anatomically WellDefined Defect
60
39 Summary
62
The Defect Closure Rule
63
42 Mechanism of Healing versus Total Resulting Change
64
43 Initial and Final States of a Healing Process
65
44 Configuration of the Final State
69
45 Three Modes of Defect Closure in Organs
70
452 Measurement of Contraction in Skin and Nerve Defects
76
453 Closure by Epithelialized Scar Skin and by Neuroma Nerve
77
454 Closure by Regeneration
82
47 Relative Importance of the Three Modes of Defect Closure in Different Species
84
48 A Transition in Healing Behavior with Development
88
49 Summary
91
Regeneration of Skin
93
511 Anatomically WellDefined Skin Defects
94
513 Assays of Configuration of the Final State
95
521 Morphology and Function of the Epidermis
96
523 Structure of Basement Membranes
99
524 Synthesis of a Skin Basement Membrane
101
525 Origins of Mechanical Failure of the DermoEpidermal Junction
105
526 Synthetic Potential and Limitations of Keratinocyte Sheet Grafts
109
53 Synthesis of the Dermis
110
532 Sequential In Vivo Synthesis of a Dermis and an Epidermis
111
533 Synthetic Potential and Limitations of the CellFree Dermis Regeneration Template
115
542 Simultaneous Synthesis of a Dermis and an Epidermis
116
543 Distinction Between In Vitro and In Vivo Synthesis
122
544 In Vitro to In Vivo Synthetic Routes
123
545 Evidence for Synthesis of a Partly Complete Skin Organ
127
55 Summary of Protocols
129
56 Simplest Conditions for Synthesis
132
57 Relative Regenerative Activity of Growth Factors Cells and Scaffolds
133
58 Summary
137
Regeneration of a Peripheral Nerve
138
611 Anatomically WellDefined Defects in Peripheral Nerves
139
Frequency of Reinnervation
142
Critical Axon Elongation
143
615 Relation Between Critical Axon Elongation Data and the Defect Closure Rule
146
Fidelity of Regeneration
149
62 Synthesis of Myelinated Nerve Fibers
151
627 Structure of Myelinated and Nonmyelinated Axons and of the Endoneurium
152
622 Synthetic Pathways to Myelinated Axons and Basement Membrane
155
623 Observations Related to Synthesis of an Endoneurial Stroma
157
63 Synthesis of a Perineurium the Epineurium
159
648 LongTerm Evidence for Synthesis of a Conducting Nerve Trunk
181
65 Regenerative Activity for Various Tubulated Configurations
183
66 Summary
184
Irreducible Processes for Synthesis of Skin and Peripheral Nerves
186
711 Reactants and Products Irreducible Processes
187
712 Approximations Underlying the Use of Reaction Diagrams
188
713 Tabulation of Reaction Diagrams
193
72 Irreducible Reaction Diagrams for Synthesis of Skin
201
73 In Vitro versus In Vivo Conditions
205
74 Conditions for Synthesis of Peripheral Nerves
208
75 A Fresh Look at the Tissue Triad
211
76 Toward Simple Protocols for Synthesis of the Entire Organ
214
77 Summary
216
The Antagonistic Relation Between Contraction and Regeneration
219
811 Reduction in Extent of Contraction in the Final State Coincided with Induced Regeneration
220
812 Delay in Closure by Contraction in Regenerating and Nonregenerating Defects
225
Relation Between Contraction and Regeneration
227
814 Scar Synthesis Was Abolished When Contraction Was Inhibited
229
816 Summary of Data a Theory Relating Inhibition of Contraction and Induction of Regeneration
233
82 Nondiffusible Regulators as Probes of Contraction
234
823 Homologous Series of ECM Analogs as Probes of Induced Regeneration
235
824 Biological Activity of Certain ECM Analogs
236
825 Strong Dependence of ContractionDelaying Activity on Structure of ECM Analogs
239
83 Summary
242
Kinetics and Mechanism I Spontaneous Healing
244
93 GoStop Signals for Skin Defect Closure in Adults
247
932 Synthesis of a Provisional Matrix and of Granulation Tissue
249
933 Identity of Contractile Cells
250
934 Generation of Local Stress by an Individual Contractile Cell
253
935 Mechanisms of Closure by Contraction
254
936 Directional Closure of Defects Translation of Perilesional Dermis
258
937 Synthesis of Scar
259
938 Mechanism of Contraction Arrest
260
939 Summary of Mechanisms for Initiation Propagation and Termination of Skin Defect Contraction
266
94 Skin Defect Closure in Fetal Models
267
95 Spontaneously Healing Defects in Peripheral Nerves
269
951 Signal for Irreversible Healing Response of a Peripheral Nerve
270
952 Proximal Stump Traumatic Degeneration of the Myelin Sheath
271
953 Sprouting ofAxons from the Proximal Stump Minifasciculation
272
955 Fibrosis and Angiogenesis in the Stump
273
957 Mechanism of Closure of Nerve Stump
274
958 Healing of the Nerve Defect in the Fetal Model
275
96 Summary
276
Kinetics and Mechanism II Induced Regeneration
278
1021 Kinetics of Synthesis of the Epidermis and Basement Membrane
279
1022 Synthesis ofRete Ridges and the Dermis
282
1023 Synchronization Between the Processes for Synthesis of Epithelia and Stroma
284
1031 Depletion of Cells Including Contractile Cells in the Defect
285
1032 Delay in Onset of Contraction
286
1033 Delay in Contraction HalfLife
290
1034 Persistence of the Regulator in a Nondiffusible State
294
1035 Mechanism for Contraction Arrest
296
1036 Blocking of Scar Synthesis Synthesis of the Dermis
298
104 Kinetics of Synthesis of Peripheral Nerves
299
Nerve Fibers
300
1042 Evidence for Synthesis of an Endoneurium and a Perineurium
303
105 Mechanism of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration
305
1052 Contractile Cell Capsule Around Stumps and Regenerated Nerve Trunk
306
1053 The Pressure Cuff Hypothesis
310
1054 Dependence of Lc on Macroscopic Experimental Configurations
311
1055 Hypothetical Synthesis of Basement Membrane Microtubes
314
1056 Substrate Preferences of Schwann Cells and Elongating Axons
316
1057 Mechanistic Considerations for Synthesis of Nonregenerative Tissues in Nerves
318
1058 Summary of Mechanisms for Nerve Regeneration
319
106 Similarities and Differences of Induced Regeneration in Skin and Nerves
320
Method of Estimation of Critical Axon Elongation of an Arbitrary Tubulated Device Bridging Two Nerve Stumps
322
References
328
Index
367
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