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accumulation acres Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount Arthur Young capital capitalist cause circulating capital commodities competition condition considerable consumed consumption cost of production cottier cultivation degree demand depends diminished duction Economy of France effect employment England equal exertion exist expense farmer favorable fertility fixed France funds greater habits human hundred quarters improvement increase individual industry interest Ireland kind laboring classes land landlord less limited mankind manufactures manure materials means ment metayer mode natural necessary obtained occupation operations paid peasant properties peasant proprietors permanent persons political economy Poor Law population portion possession present principle productive laborers profit proportion quantity quired rate of profit remuneration render rent saving Sismondi slavery small farms society soil subsistence sufficient supply suppose taxes tenant things tion tivation Tuscany unless unproductive wages wealth whole
Page 197 - It is not so with the Distribution of Wealth. That is a matter of human institution solely. The things once there, mankind, individually or collectively, can do with them as they like.
Page 373 - A mason or bricklayer, on the contrary, can work neither in hard frost nor in foul weather, and his employment at all other times depends upon the occasional calls of his customers. He is liable, in consequence, to be frequently without any. What he earns, therefore, while he is employed, must not only maintain him while he is idle, but make him some compensation for those anxious and desponding" moments which the thought of so precarious a situation must sometimes occasion.
Page 3 - It often happens that the universal belief of one age of mankind — a belief from which no one was, nor without an extraordinary effort of genius and courage, could at that time be free — becomes to a subsequent age so palpable an absurdity, that the only difficulty then is to imagine how such a thing can ever have appeared credible.
Page 422 - every speculation respecting the economical interests of a society thus constituted implies some theory of Value : the smallest error on that subject infects with corresponding error all our other conclusions ; and anything vague or misty in our conception of it creates confusion and uncertainty in everything
Page 122 - ... the invention of a great number of machines which facilitate and abridge labour, and enable one man to do the work of many.
Page 293 - The landlord is no doubt liable in the end to suffer from their poverty, by being forced to make advances to them, especially in bad seasons ; and a foresight of this ultimate inconvenience may operate beneficially on such landlords as prefer future security to present profit. The characteristic disadvantage of the metayer system is very fairly stated by Adam Smith.
Page 337 - The condition of the class can be bettered in no other way than by altering that proportion to their advantage ; and every scheme for their benefit which does not proceed on this as its foundation, is, for all permanent purposes, a delusion.
Page 311 - ... of all vulgar modes of escaping from the consideration of the effect of social and moral influences on the human mind, the most vulgar is that of attributing the diversities of conduct and character to inherent natural differences.
Page 404 - The fact, however, remains, that in the whole process of production, beginning with the materials and tools, and ending with the finished product, all the advances have consisted of nothing but wages ; except that certain of the capitalists concerned have, for the sake of general convenience, had their share of profit paid to them before the operation was completed. Whatever, of the ultimate product, is not profit, is repayment of wages.