The Pa-O: Rebels and Refugees
The Pa-O are one of Burma's many ethnic minorities, considered to be one of the four main subgroups of the Karen. They live primarily in southwestern Shan State, where they have maintained their own language and culture for centuries. They were engaged in a forty-year insurgency against the government of Burma, which ended with a cease-fire in 1994.
This is the first book on the Pa-O in English. Drawing upon historical accounts, contemporary writing, and personal interviews, the authors present the mythological and historical background of the Pa-O in Burma and Thailand. They recount the recent political history and focus on the experiences and difficulties of one village community that was forced to relocate ten times between 1978 and 1996. Interviews with several recently arrived Pa-O provide first-hand evidence of the difficult conditions under which the Pa-O live both in Burma Thailand.
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The PaO of Burma
The PaO in Thailand
A PaO Village on the Run
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Anawrahta Aung Kham Hti Bangkok Bayinnaung Buddhist Burmese army Burmese soldiers Chiang Communist Don Nga Kram east elephants Enriquez ethnic groups ethnic minority fighting fled forces Gazetteer of Upper Glass Palace Chronicle Hackett hill History of Burma Hmong Hmong village Hsa Htung Hsi Hseng Hti Ta Maung Ibid Inle Lake inside Thailand James George Scott Karen Kengtung Keyes Khun Sa's killed kilometers large number later Lower Burma Mae Hong Mae Sot Mandalay Manerplaw Mangrai Mawchi Mawkmai military government monastery monks moved Myelat nationalist Pa-O Naung northern Thailand opium Pa-O movement Pa-O National Organization Pa-O soldiers Pa-O village Politics of Ethnicity raids Rangoon Red Pa-O rice Salween River Sao Saimong Sao Saimong Mangrai sawbwas Scott and Hardiman Shan sawbwas Siam south of Taunggyi southern Shan SSNLO stayed Taunggyi Taungthu Tha Kaley Thai border Thai-Burma border Thaton Thaton area trade traditional Union of Burma Upper Burma Yawnghwe