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95 percent level Acs and Audretsch activity of large activity of small Baltimore MD Burlington Street Centre for Economic CEPR Discussion Papers coefficient coincidence of universities commercially viable innovations Connecticut conventional wisdom corporate patent activity dependent variable direct measure diseconomies of scale Economic Policy Research elasticity of innovative evidence that spillovers expenditures on research geographic coincidence index geographic proximity identify the degree industrial R&D expenditures innovation measure innovative activity innovative advantage innovative output Jaffe Jaffe's model knowledge generating inputs knowledge production function large and small large corporations large firms level of confidence Link and Rees lncome measure of innovative number of innovations patent measure product innovations R&D Spillovers Rank research and development research by universities research labs significant at 95 small firms spillovers are facilitated spillovers from university Statistically significant technological change two-tailed test unit of observation universities and research university and corporate university laboratories university research