## The Measurement of Time: Time, Frequency and the Atomic ClockThis volume is a comprehensive introduction to the physics of time and time measurement, from an historical perspective to the modern day. It discusses the stability and accuracy of atomic frequency standards, covering different types of oscillators and atomic clocks, and their uses. The precision of atomic clocks and the atomic time scale are considered in the context of fundamental physical research, with relation to general relativity and applications such as the Global Positioning System. The authors also discuss International Atomic Time and its relationship to Coordinated Universal Time and the time scales used in astronomy. |

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### Contents

I | x |

II | 1 |

III | 6 |

IV | 7 |

VII | 8 |

VIII | 9 |

X | 10 |

XI | 11 |

LXX | 170 |

LXXI | 184 |

LXXIII | 185 |

LXXIV | 187 |

LXXV | 191 |

LXXVI | 201 |

LXXVII | 210 |

LXXVIII | 211 |

XII | 12 |

XIII | 13 |

XIV | 16 |

XV | 17 |

XVI | 19 |

XVII | 21 |

XVIII | 22 |

XIX | 23 |

XX | 24 |

XXI | 27 |

XXII | 36 |

XXIII | 38 |

XXV | 40 |

XXVI | 41 |

XXVII | 43 |

XXVIII | 46 |

XXX | 47 |

XXXI | 50 |

XXXII | 51 |

XXXIV | 56 |

XXXV | 61 |

XXXVI | 64 |

XXXVII | 65 |

XXXVIII | 67 |

XL | 69 |

XLI | 71 |

XLII | 72 |

XLIII | 73 |

XLIV | 81 |

XLV | 82 |

XLVI | 83 |

XLVII | 84 |

XLIX | 86 |

L | 87 |

LII | 89 |

LIII | 90 |

LV | 104 |

LVI | 109 |

LVII | 110 |

LVIII | 116 |

LIX | 118 |

LX | 119 |

LXIII | 123 |

LXIV | 125 |

LXV | 126 |

LXVI | 127 |

LXVII | 129 |

LXVIII | 130 |

LXIX | 162 |

LXXX | 213 |

LXXXI | 215 |

LXXXIII | 217 |

LXXXV | 218 |

LXXXVI | 222 |

LXXXVII | 224 |

LXXXVIII | 228 |

LXXXIX | 229 |

XCI | 230 |

XCII | 231 |

XCV | 233 |

XCVI | 234 |

XCVII | 236 |

XCIX | 237 |

C | 240 |

CI | 241 |

CII | 252 |

CIV | 254 |

CVI | 255 |

CVIII | 258 |

CIX | 259 |

CX | 260 |

CXI | 261 |

CXII | 262 |

CXIII | 264 |

CXIV | 266 |

CXV | 269 |

CXVII | 273 |

CXVIII | 276 |

CXIX | 278 |

CXX | 279 |

CXXI | 280 |

CXXII | 281 |

CXXIII | 286 |

CXXIV | 287 |

CXXV | 289 |

CXXVI | 290 |

CXXVII | 291 |

CXXVIII | 295 |

CXXIX | 297 |

CXXX | 301 |

CXXXI | 306 |

CXXXII | 308 |

CXXXIII | 311 |

CXXXIV | 313 |

CXXXV | 315 |

317 | |

331 | |

### Common terms and phrases

accuracy Allan variance amplitude applied astronomical atomic beam atomic clocks atomic frequency standards atomic resonance axis BIPM caesium atom caesium beam tube caesium clocks clock transition comparisons components constant coordinate system Coordinated Universal defined definition difference Doppler effect Earth Earth's rotation electromagnetic electron emission energy Ephemeris equation experimental fluctuations frequency shift frequency stability geocentric coordinate geoid GLONASS hydrogen atoms hydrogen maser hyperfine structure hyperfine transition frequency inaccuracy interaction International laboratory laser long term frequency magnetic field mean measurement mercury ion method metrology modulation motion noise observed obtained optically pumped orbital order Doppler oscillation frequency oscillatory fields parameters perturbation phase photons possible primary standards pulsars quality factor quantity quartz oscillator quency radiation realised reference relative resonance frequency resonant cavity rubidium satellite scale Section servo controlled signal solar spatial sublevels synchronisation term frequency instability tion ultrahigh frequency uncertainty variation velocity whilst

### Popular passages

Page 319 - JA Barnes, AR Chi, LS Cutler, DJ Healey, DB Leeson, TE McGunigal, JA Mullen Jr., WL Smith, RL Sydnor, RFC Vessot and GMR Winkler, "Characterization of frequency stability", IEEE Trans.