A new mind for policy analysis: toward a post-Newtonian and postpositivist epistemology and methodology
Morcol argues that the objectivist and deterministic assumptions of mainstream policy analysis, which are based on the Newtonian/positivist worldview or mind-set, should be transcended. After demonstrating that the favored methods of mainstream policy analysis are based on Newtonian ontological and positivist epistemological assumptions and that the connections between these two are intimately and historically related, he critically assesses and highlights the contributions of quantum mechanics, complexity theory, and cognitive science to a new mind-set in scientific knowledge, a post-Newtonian and postpositivist mind-set. Newtonian/positivist and post-Newtonian/postpositivist worldviews are conceptualized as fuzzy mind-sets, that is they are not mutually exclusive and that they share assumptions at varying degrees. Cognitive science shows that some of the fundamental concepts and assumptions of the Newtonain/positivist philosopysuch as the concept of causality and the tendency to categorize reality (reductionist thinking)are the products of the evolutionary adaptation of the human mind and they have become its built-in defaults. As Morcol suggests, we cannot change the biological defaults of our minds, but we can change our way of thinking, to an extent, through a cultural evolution. He argues that conscious efforts can be made in policy analysis education to help move our thinking toward a post-Newtonian and postpositivist policy analysis. Of particular interest to scholars and advanced students dealing with policy analysis, public administration, and political science, especially those concerned with epistemology and methodology.
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THE PAST AND PRESENT OF NEWTONIAN
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According argue assumptions attractor behavior beliefs biological causality chaos theory chaotic Chapter cognitive science Cognitive scientists complexity theory concepts consciousness context Copenhagen interpretation correspondence theory critical critique cultural defined definition dependent variable determined deterministic dimensions discuss distinction dynamic elements emerge epistemological evolution example existence experimental experiments fact-value fact-value distinction fuzzy hermeneutic human illustrate images implications independent individual interactions Kauffman knowledge process language logical positivists logistic equation Lyapunov exponents maps mathematical measurement metaphorical methodological mind mind-set multiple nature Newtonian Newtonian/positivist science nonlinear notion object observer ontological organization paradigm participatory particles perspective phenomena philosophical physical points policy analysis political positivism postpositivism postpositivist predictable principles problem public policy qualitative quantificationist quantitative methods quantum mechanics question random regimes regression analysis relationships Repertory Grid role scientific self-organization simulations social sciences structures subatomic suggests superstring theory theoretical theorists thinking truth understanding values wave function worldview